Spinal hernia is a congenital abnormality. The occurrence of pathology is explained by the fact that in the process of prenatal development some vertebrae did not close.
The spinal cord along with the membranes fell into the gap formed.
In most cases, spinal hernia is formed in the lower spinal regions. This condition is considered one of the most dangerous pathologies. The severity of the disease depends on the size of the unprotected nerve tissue.
Today, a pathological tumor in a child can be detected even during the pregnancy of the mother. The presence of a hernia can be determined by ultrasound scanning.
Unfortunately, a spinal hernia that is not detected in time can cause disability of an adult. The patient, being unable to move his legs, has difficulties with hygiene and cannot do without outside help. In some cases, the pathology provokes the formation of inflammation in the membranes of the brain.
The contents of this spinal hernia are the “ingredients” of the nervous tissue. A spinal hernia is characterized by disorders of a neurological nature and is accompanied by pathological changes in the central nervous system.
This form of spinal hernia is accompanied by the following leg developmental pathologies such as:
- abnormal number of fingers.
This type of spinal cleavage is characterized by the presence of a visible bone defect. With a severe degree of the disease, the characteristic protrusion is noticeable, and the patient experiences serious problems during physical activity.
A spinal hernia is characterized by the following symptoms:
- Incorrect position of the legs and the presence of specific defects.
- Signs of hydrocephalus.
- Paralysis of the legs (full or partial), suggesting a loss of sensation.
- Painful sensation during stool and urination.
- Incontinence of feces and urine.
If the patient assumes that he has a hernia, then he should visit an experienced doctor as soon as possible. After a detailed survey and thorough examination of the patient, the doctor prescribes the passage of:
- Contrast myelography (assigned to assess the degree of damage to the spinal cord).
- Magnetic resonance therapy.
- Computed tomography (allows to determine the localization and contents of the hernia).
- Transillumination (allows you to determine the content of the hernia).
After establishing an accurate diagnosis, appropriate treatment is prescribed.
Treatment with auxiliary methods involves:
- Physical Therapy.
- Vitamin therapy.
- Treatment with potent drugs (nootropics or neurotrophies).
- Physical therapy (treatment is carried out with the help of magnetic therapy or laser therapy), which helps to improve the nutrition of the legs (soft tissue).
Unfortunately, the treatment with the methods of adjuvant therapy does not completely eliminate the dangerous pathology. But with proper care, the patient's condition is noticeably easier.
Spinal hernia in newborns involves the timely treatment of comorbidities. This should occur immediately after the hernia is eliminated.
Patients with pronounced symptoms of paresis of the legs need a long rehabilitation process. Treatment includes:
- physiotherapy sessions.
It is important to pay attention to the timely development of a child's reflection on urination and defecation.
Unfortunately, often a hernia provokes the occurrence of serious consequences, which cannot be eliminated under current conditions. The baby's chances of survival are reduced if the pathology is extensive.
Thanks to the ultrasound, the hernia is clearly visible in the photo already at the twentieth week of gestation. In some cases, mothers suggest abortion.
According to specialists in the field of medicine, it is possible to avoid the tragedy, if in advance of pregnancy, under the supervision of an experienced doctor, take folic acid.
A favorable prognosis depends not only on the timeliness of the measures taken, but also on the form of the pathology, as well as on its localization.
A patient suffering from spina bifida must adhere to a special diet, which involves eating foods high in plant fiber. Permanent medical supervision is strictly required.
Spinal cord: structure
The spinal cord is a part of the central nervous system that extends along the entire length of the spine. The spinal cord is divided into two parts - right and left. He has only three shells:
The last two shells are joined by half-empty space. It contains cerebrospinal fluid.
Inside it is a gray matter. It is a collection of neurons. It also has three projections - otherwise they are called horns.
Table number 1. Protrusions and their characteristics
The entire length of the conductive paths are formed from bundles of nerves. There are three types of paths:
- downward (responsible for sensitivity),
- ascending (responsible for movement).
What is a spinal hernia?
Spinal hernia - a disease that manifests itself at any age. It is the result of a defect in the spinal canal. Defect leads to the release of cerebrospinal fluid and protrusion of the spinal cord. This causes disruption to its operation. In addition, it prevents the vertebrae from connecting.
As a rule, the disease appears most often in the lower back.
Thanks to modern medical technology today such a disease is found even before the birth of a child. It appears in one of 30,000 newborns, which, in general, suggests a low incidence rate.
Treatment of spinal hernia in children is much easier than in an adult, because their body is just developing. However, it should be noted that only a small number of people are able to fully recover from the disappearance of the hernia. The rest in one form or another will retain an “echo” in the form of some defects and problems of a secondary nature.
Causes of spinal hernia
The causes of spinal hernia in a child are not well understood. Therefore, we can only assume exactly what factor caused its appearance.
The theory that has the greatest support is that a spinal hernia appears due to abnormalities in the development of the spine and spinal cord. In turn, this anomaly develops due to lack of vitamins. Adequate amounts of folic acid affect the proper intrauterine development.
If we talk about spinal hernia in an adult, it appears due to the following factors:
- carrying too heavy a load
- incorrectly selected poses when carrying loads,
- abnormal movements associated with lifting weights
These reasons explain why people between the ages of 25 and 45 are most affected by this problem. Indeed, young people care little about their health and do not control their efforts in various activities. For this reason, it is easier for them to harm themselves.
What else is worth noting - the disease does not occur immediately, but over time. This complicates the treatment due to the inability to quickly detect it.
Symptoms of spinal hernia vary depending on its location.
Common symptoms are as follows:
- impaired sensitivity in the limbs,
- vision problems
- difficulty urinating and urinating.
It should be noted that hydrocephalus may occur in newborns.
It is important to know! Hydrocephalus (also known as dropsy of the brain) is a disease consisting in the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the skull and leading to impaired brain development.
In the presence of a hernia in the lower back, the following symptoms appear:
- burning, numbness or tingling in the buttock or in both legs,
- severe and sharp pain in the groin and abdomen,
- pain when moving
- increased pain when sitting, stooping, and when coughing and sneezing,
If the hernia is in the cervical region, then the following symptoms occur:
- pain in hands, extending to fingers,
- a sharp change in blood pressure,
- trouble sleeping
- inability to concentrate,
- general weakness.
In the chest, a spinal hernia appears as:
- difficulty exhaling
- discomfort between the shoulder blades,
- pain around the heart due to sudden movements or turns,
- numbness in shoulders and arms.
During a spinal hernia, the outward spinal cord constantly presses on the vertebrae and nerves. It can cause pain, numbness of parts of the body, or dysfunction of organs associated with the transmitted nerve.
As a result, spinal hernia leads to the following complications:
- problems with stool and urination,
- brain inflammation.
If you want to know in more detail how the treatment of a tumor (cancer) of the spinal cord is performed, as well as to consider the symptoms, classification and diagnosis, you can read an article about it on our portal.
Spinal hernia treatment
Spinal hernia has its own characteristics that must be considered when choosing a course of treatment.
First of all, you should pay attention to non-surgical methods of treatment.
- Acupuncture (also known as acupuncture).
- Vitamin therapy - taking vitamins A, B, C, E.
- Taking drugs aimed at improving the conductivity of the nervous tissue (nootropic drugs).
- Treatment with vacuum banks.
- Laser therapy and / or magnetic therapy - to improve the condition of soft tissues.
Acupuncture is a method of treatment based on the use of needles in certain parts of the human body. It is an integral part of the health care system in China, which emerged at least 2500 years ago.
The general theory of acupuncture is based on the assumption that there are all kinds of currents of Qi energy flow in the body that are responsible for health. It is believed that violations of this flow cause disease.
Acupuncture restores this flow and eliminates various disruptions in the functioning of the body. This is achieved by penetrating the skin with thin, solid metal needles that are manipulated manually or by electrical stimulation.
If you want to learn more about how to treat a hernia with acupuncture, as well as to consider the description, preparation and effectiveness of treatment, you can read an article about it on our portal.
The practice of acupuncture for the treatment of identified painful was rare in Europe until the twentieth century. Since then, this area has gained wide popularity in the West and in our country as well.
Vitamin therapy is a treatment method based on the intravenous or oral administration of vitamins, minerals and other nutrients to the patient. It is not new - this method has become popular since the 1930s. It is known that vitamins, minerals and other nutrients are necessary for health, but getting them from food in full is not always realistic. The duration of treatment with this therapy varies greatly and depends on the disease and the individual tolerance of vitamins.
This method of treatment is based on the use of drugs in order to improve health and get rid of the primary causes of the disease.
Spinal hernia suffers primarily from the blood supply to the organs (including the brain). The fact is that this ailment causes a spasm of the vertebral arteries, which play an important role in the blood circulation.
The patient begins to suffer from pain, dizziness, nausea, weakness and other symptoms of a hernia. Therefore, the treatment of spinal hernia involves taking nootropic drugs aimed at improving blood circulation and stimulating metabolism in the brain.
These drugs include:
- "Vinpocetine" - medicine-proofreader, which restores the normal functioning of the brain. It dilates blood vessels, increases the amount of oxygen entering the blood and protects the structure of the nerves. In addition, it greatly enhances the blood supply to the brain,
- "Piracetam" - a drug that levels the blood flow and accelerates the metabolic processes in the brain,
Vacuum therapy is an alternative method of treating diseases, in which the process of “suction” created by banks with suckers located on the human body is used. This therapy helps to get rid of headaches, arthritis, rheumatism, fibromyalgia, fatigue and problems with the musculoskeletal system. Vacuum therapy promotes self-healing, capillary regeneration, increased blood flow to the problem area, maintaining homeostasis and getting rid of inflammation and toxins.
During this procedure, banks with suction cups are placed on the body and left in place for several minutes. The vacuum that is created by them lifts the skin and tightens the lower soft tissues.
Therapeutic massage is a technique based on the use of special complexes of hand movements that have a beneficial effect on the health and well-being of the patient.
With spinal hernia, massage improves blood flow in the affected areas of the body - the spine, legs, arms, lower back.
Important! The massage is performed only by a specialist, since there is a danger that most movements can adversely affect human health by damaging the weakened skeleton.
Laser therapy and magnetotherapy
Laser therapy is a treatment method that uses a focused beam of light. Unlike most light sources, the laser light is tuned to a specific wavelength. This makes it possible to use powerful rays. Laser light is so intense that it is used even to form diamonds or to cut steel.
In medicine, lasers help surgeons to perform actions with high precision in a small area. With laser therapy, pain, swelling and scarring are less than with traditional surgery. However, laser therapy is an expensive procedure and requires repeated treatment to consolidate the effect.
Alternative laser therapy favors magnetic therapy. This technique is based on the use of magnets in specific parts of the human body for pain or pathology. The field is created by a biomagnetic pair, that is, by the interaction of positive and negative magnets. This field improves the Ph index of the body and eliminates the negative effects of diseases.
Magnetic therapy is also used to relieve pain in the joints and bones.
Physical therapy is a treatment method that is based on performing various exercises in order to strengthen muscles and improve the condition of the musculoskeletal system.
Exercises at first should be conducted under the supervision of a physician. It should be noted separately on the horizontal bar - the doctors highly recommend this method for non-surgical treatment. This exercise relieves pain and returns the spine flexibility.
In spinal hernia, exercises are performed only in the prone position. Movement - slow and sparing. The amplitude or duration of the sessions can be reduced if the patient is not feeling well. On average, it is recommended to engage in half an hour a day.
Below are a few exercises that will help in improving health.
- It is necessary to bend the arms in the elbows and place them in the chest area. Bend the rib cage to make it look like a half-bridge, and lock in this position for a short time. Then align the chest and take the starting position. Do it all you need to relax. The optimal number of times is eight.
- Straighten the legs. Extend your arms and put them on the floor along the body. Tightening the muscles of the back, try to raise the pelvis up, depriving him of support in the form of sex. In this case, palms and shoulders tightly pressed to the floor. Then linger briefly in this position. After - lower the pelvis down. You need to repeat this exercise four times.
Hippotherapy is a type of physiotherapy in which horse riding is used as a means of developing and improving the functioning of the body at the neurological and physical levels. Hippotherapy is based on one theory, which states that human development is enhanced at the moment when a person copies the pace, rhythm, gait and frequency of how a horse moves.
This technique is considered non-standard, because it is in direct contact with the animal. Nevertheless, numerous studies have shown that this technique helps people strengthen their back muscles and improve circulation.
If non-surgical techniques have no effect, then surgery is needed to remove a spinal hernia. To do this, do the following:
- the hernia sac and its contents are evaluated,
- dead tissues are found and removed,
- the defect of the spinal canal, which led to the occurrence of the problem.
As a rule, surgery is done with a hernia in an adult.
Surgery gives its positive effect, but also leads to some complications. They are as follows:
- after surgery, the suture may leak
- high probability of bleeding and infection,
- problems in the proper functioning of nerve endings,
- possible relapse.
Spinal hernia is an extremely serious disease that can manifest itself in both a child and an adult. He has many causes and symptoms, which creates some obstacles in determining the source of the problem.
In general, a positive prognosis depends on how well the hernia is developed, its location and time of treatment.
A person suffering from a spinal hernia should completely change his habits and reconsider his lifestyle. If you make enough effort, it is possible to recover from this disease.
How severe is this disease?
Today, a spinal hernia is diagnosed in the prenatal period, which makes it possible to take preventive measures already before the birth of the child. Almost always spina bifida is an indication to terminate a pregnancy, as a spinal hernia in newborns is considered a very serious developmental defect. But if the woman still decided to give birth, then after giving birth the child is prescribed radical treatment to prevent the development of severe disability.
Spinal hernia in adults is also accompanied by severe disability, because it does not allow movement of the lower limbs and leads to incontinence of urine and feces. Man without help simply can not exist.
What can cause hernia?
The causes of spina bifida are still not fully understood. The fetus during fetal development can be affected by various factors: chemical, biological, physical. Most scientists agreed that a lack of vitamins in the mother's body, in particular, folic acid, may lead to the appearance of a spinal hernia.
Although spina bifida is a congenital abnormality, but by its nature it is not considered genetic. However, if a child with such an anomaly was already conceived, then with subsequent pregnancy the risk of its occurrence is great.
To prevent the conception of the next child with a split backbone, before the onset of pregnancy, the woman should undergo preliminary training, consuming a complex of all the necessary vitamins and minerals.
In an adult, a spinal hernia occurs because of a fall from a height, weight lifting, as a result of a collision or impact.
Types of spinal hernia
This pathology is of the following types:
- Hidden, which is characterized by mild form and violation of the structure of only one vertebra. Most people who have this type of hernia have no symptoms, only in the area of the affected spine there is a slight depression.
- Hernial, in which there is a serious bone defect. Pathology has an external manifestation, which is expressed in the hernial protrusion with the spinal cord in it along with the membranes and the cerebrospinal fluid. Most often, the nerve roots and trunks are not affected and continue to function normally. In more severe cases in the hernial sac may be infringement of the spinal cord with shells, trunks and nerve roots. In this case, the pathology is accompanied by severe violations of motor activity and sensitivity.
Symptoms of pathology in newborns
Congenital spinal hernia is manifested as follows:
- leg paralysis,
- impaired intestinal motility,
- loss of sensitivity below the site of hernia,
- dysfunction of the bladder, kidneys and rectum.
Another sign that characterizes spinal hernia in children is the very large size of the skull caused by dropsy of the brain (hydrocephalus), that is, fluid accumulates inside the ventricles of the brain. Contributes to this violation of the circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid, which is caused by spinal hernia.
Hydrocephalus often leads to convulsions, delayed development, epilepsy, neurotic disorders, severe headaches, strabismus, poor eyesight, rolling up the pupils, weakness of the limbs. With a very strong pressure of fluid on the brain, death occurs.
Symptoms of the disease in adults
A spinal hernia in an adult is characterized by the following symptoms:
- Numbness of the skin on the foot, thigh or lower leg, feeling of leaking or tingling.
- Pain on stooping.
- The difficulty of controlling the work of the muscles of the foot, thigh, lower leg.
- Intense pain arising in the lumbar spine, extending to the legs, abdomen, groin area.
- Excessive sweating.
How is pathology diagnosed?
Diagnosis of a hernia begins with the collection of a medical history: the age at which weakness in the lower limbs appeared and thinning of the leg muscles appeared, as well as when it became very difficult to move, is determined.
The patient must turn to a neurologist, who assesses the strength of the lower limbs' motor activity, checks how much the muscle tone in the legs is reduced, and also examines the spinal column to reveal the external hernial protrusion.
Diagnosis of hernia includes:
- Transillumination, which is used to evaluate the contents of the hernial sac.
- Contrast myelography. In this case, it is estimated how badly the spinal cord is damaged by injecting for it an intravenous contrast agent, which begins to accumulate in the hernia area,
- Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging used in the spinal column to study the spinal cord. The obtained data allow us to identify the pathological area in the structure of the vertebral canals and the place where the hernia and its contents are located.
Consultation with a surgeon and genetics is also required.
Detection of anomaly in the fetus during fetal development is carried out as follows:
- with a planned ultrasound during pregnancy,
- delivery of blood tests for the content of alpha-fetoprotein by a woman during the period of carrying a child,
- study of amniotic fluid by piercing the membranes.
The decision on whether to terminate a pregnancy or not is made by a consultation of doctors, based on the severity of the pathology and the desire of the woman herself.
Conservative treatment of vertebral abnormalities
Spinal hernia is a very serious ailment, therefore any traditional methods of treatment, visiting saunas and baths, the use of alcohol infusions, hot compresses, as well as hot baths with medicinal herbs are strictly prohibited. All this can greatly worsen the condition of the patient.
Spinal hernia treatment is carried out only in a radical way - removal of pathology. Conservative treatment is necessary in order to prevent the progression of anomaly. To do this, use neurotrophies and nootropics, which normalize the work of nervous tissue. Be sure to take vitamins A, B, C, E, contributing to the improvement of metabolic processes in areas of the spinal cord affected by the disease.
Also recommended are physiotherapy (laser, magnet) to help restore motor activity. With the help of physical therapy in the affected areas neuromuscular connections are restored. Thanks to dietary nutrition, intestinal function is normalized. Be sure to include in the diet more coarse fiber (cereal, vegetables).
Surgical removal of spinal hernia
Many patients are afraid of the operation, but in most cases it is this method of treatment that helps to get rid of the hernia, until the nerve centers are affected. Surgical intervention is absolutely necessary if unbearable pains occur, the feces and urine are incontinent, the person begins to move with difficulty, and only painkillers save him.
Surgery (spinal hernia surgical removal) is to reconstruct the defect of the spine, closing the opening of the bone tissue. If the hernial sac has non-viable tissues, they are removed, and healthy structures of the spinal cord are placed in the spinal canal. In most cases, the disease is accompanied by hydrocephalus, which after some time contributes to irreversible changes in the brain. To prevent the detrimental effect of strong intracranial pressure, a shunt is formed, which is necessary to drain the CSF into the thoracic lymphatic duct.
Spinal hernia - the main symptoms:
- Low back pain
- Numbness of the legs
- Circulatory disorders
- Hearing impairment
- Urinary incontinence
- Mental retardation
- Fecal incontinence
- Blood pressure fluctuations
- Violation of pain sensitivity
- Blurred vision
- Respiratory failure
- Impaired limb mobility
- Cardiac Disruption
- Paralysis of limbs
- Spinal mobility impairment in the cervical spine
- Protrusion in the spine
- Neurological disorders
- Lowering reflexes
Spinal hernia is a severe pathological process, often of an innate nature, that occurs when the posterior wall of the spinal canal does not open. Through the resulting defect is the release of the dura mater, cerebrospinal fluid, nerve roots, brain damage.
The complex of physiological and functional abnormalities in spinal hernia is combined by the term myelodysplasia.
The frequency of detection of the disease in newborns is 1 child out of 1000–3000 newborns, the pathology can be combined with other developmental abnormalities.
It is diagnosed at the time of an ultrasound examination of the fetus or a spinal hernia already in newborns is detected by physical examination and instrumental diagnostics. Treatment is only operable. During the rehabilitation period, physiotherapy with gymnastics is prescribed to restore the activity of the nerve receptors.
This pathology has a rather large list of causes, depending on the time of detection and the nature of the acquisition, in an adult or in a child, a congenital developmental disorder or a consequence of complications of osteochondrosis, injury.
Spinal hernia in adults has the following causes:
- spinal injuries
- the result of spinal surgery,
- genetic predisposition
- strong physical strain,
- sedentary lifestyle,
- spinal diseases.
In the human spine, solid bone elements are replaced by cartilage, which makes it flexible and mobile. Intervertebral discs provide ductility and cushioning, and under the influence of adverse factors are the most vulnerable.
Congenital spinal hernia has the following causes:
- lack of nutrients in the process of fetus formation,
- the effect of toxins on the body
- taking drugs during pregnancy,
- severe infectious diseases of a pregnant woman.
Pathology develops due to malformation in the process of neural tube formation in the embryo, which forms the spinal canal and spinal cord. From the period in which the embryo was exposed to adverse factors, will depend on the severity of the pathology such as congenital spinal hernia.
Depending on the cause of the patient and the age of the patient, the classification of the cerebrospinal hernia can be carried out according to the degree of flow, location, and type.
Congenital spinal hernia can be located in any part of the spine:
- in the cervical, a rather rare kind of pathological process, when a defect is found in the upper part of the spinal cord responsible for the vocal cords and muscular function of the face and neck, the formation disrupts physical activity, negatively affects the respiratory system and the ability to suck the child,
- in the chest - negatively affects the functioning of the facial muscles, larynx, the cardiovascular system, liver, stomach, intestines, spleen are involved in the pathological process,
- in the lumbar region - it occurs frequently, the motor function of the legs is affected, changes in the gastrointestinal tract are observed, in adults it causes problems with the genitourinary system.
By the type of spina bifida, spinal hernia in children can be of two forms:
- latent form, when there is no outward protrusion, without symptomatic deviation with a slight depression in the affected area of the spinal column,
- hernial - open form with protrusion out, with motor and functional impairment.
According to the degree of external growth, this pathology is divided into the following types:
- meningocele - refers to the mild form of the disease, the spine deforms after penetration of the spinal cord, in this case, the brain does not change, its structure and function in a normal state, symptoms are practically not observed,
- meningomyelocele - the spinal substance leaves the child’s spinal cord without damaging the neural tube, changes in neuralgia are noted,
- meningoradiculocele - is a severe form, the spinal cord, nervous tissue with unchanged neural tube gets into the defective area,
- myelotsysotsele - the most severe degree of damage to the structure of the spinal cord without the possibility of recovery, the therapeutic prognosis is negative,
- rachishisis - the shell of the spinal cord splits, there is no skin on the hernia, for a baby such a form is extremely life-threatening.
Very rarely, protrusion occurs with a tumor-like neoplasm, which is benign in nature, but if left untreated, it transforms into a malignant neoplasm and leads to death.
In adults, a hernia is caused by injury or severe stress: in such cases, meningocele or meningomyelocele is most often diagnosed. The patient is in urgent need of assistance and surgery.
The pathological process of herniation can have a hidden nature of development and is manifested already in an adult due to unfavorable factors (for injury, weight lifting). The main symptoms are lumbar pain, numbness in the legs, temporary loss of movement.
In general, a spinal hernia has the following symptoms:
- rounded protrusion in the spine,
- pain sensitivity is impaired,
- decreased motor activity of the limbs,
- lack or decrease of reflexes,
- convulsive seizures
- paralysis of the upper or lower limbs,
- blood circulation is disturbed,
- dysfunction of the respiratory system and heart,
- neurological disorders
- mental retardation,
- incontinence of urine and feces.
In parallel, skin diseases, pathologies of the pelvic organs, pneumonia can occur.
Spinal hernia in newborns causes problems with thermoregulation, as well as muscular atrophy, bedsores and trophic ulcers.
The most severe type is a hernia of the cervical region, which can lead to disability, causes pressure spikes, impairs mobility of the neck, causes visual impairment, hearing. In adults, insomnia, vomiting, nausea, tinnitus, numbness, headaches, hypertension are noted.
Spinal hernia is a very serious disease that causes the following serious consequences:
- infection due to rupture of the hernial sac,
- loss of motor activity, paralysis,
- problems with emptying (incontinence of urine and feces),
- the brain with a hernia of the cervical spine functions worse,
Prompt elimination of the disease always borders on risk, since nerve endings can be affected, which can lead to disability, and non-compliance with medical recommendations contributes to the relapse of the disease.
The etiology of spina bifida has not been well studied, so the specific causes of the occurrence of this disease are not determined. Fetal development of the fetus is affected by many biological, chemical and physical factors, and according to most scientists, the most predisposing development of spinal hernia is a deficiency of vitamins in the maternal organism, in particular folic acid.
Although spina bifida is congenital in nature, it is not genetic in nature, but if a woman had a baby with such a pathology, the risks of its occurrence during the next pregnancy are enormous.
In order to prevent the conception of the next child with this pathology, it is necessary to undergo preliminary preparation for pregnancy, by using the entire complex of vitamins and minerals.
Types of disease
Spina bifida is of the following types:
- Hidden - a type of pathology, which is mild and represents a violation of the structure of only one vertebra. Almost all people with a similar type of hernia have no symptoms, there is only a slight depression over the area of the affected vertebral column,
- Hernial - this type of disease is accompanied by a serious bone defect. It is possible to note the presence of an external sign of pathology, expressed by hernial protrusion, the contents of which is the spinal cord with shells and cerebrospinal fluid. Usually trunks and nerve roots are not damaged, functioning normally. In severe cases of the disease, the spinal cord with trunks, membranes and nerve roots enters the hernial sac. This degree of pathology is accompanied by severe sensory and motor disorders.
Symptoms of spinal hernia
- Volumetric education of a round or oblong form at the level of a backbone:
- the skin above it may be reddish or bluish in color, sometimes thinned, shiny,
- often the skin over this formation (hernia) is covered with dark hair.
- Severe weakness in the legs (less often in the hands - with localization of the hernia in the cervical spinal cord), up to the complete immobility of the limbs.
- The formation of flexion contractures (irreversible stiffness of the joints) in the joints of the extremities is also due to the prolonged immobility of the joints as if they “ossify”.
- Thinning muscles of the limbs (atrophy).
- Signs of eating disorders of the limbs:
- decrease in skin temperature of the limbs,
- swelling of soft tissue
- ulceration of the skin (minor skin defects).
- Incontinence of urine and feces.
- Depending on where the hernia is located, the following forms of spinal hernias are distinguished:
- spinal hernia of the cervical spine,
- spinal hernia of the thoracic spine,
- spinal hernia of the lumbosacral spine (occurs most often).
- Depending on the structure of the hernia, the following main forms are distinguished:
- the substance of the spinal cord and its shell penetrate into the defect of the spinal canal (this is called meningomyelocele),
- only the membranes of the spinal cord penetrate into the defect of the spinal canal (this is called meningocele),
- the composition of the hernia includes the roots of the spinal cord, some of which are spliced with the inner wall of the hernia sac. The spinal cord is located in its place (this is called meningoradiculocele),
- the composition of the hernia includes the membranes of the spinal cord and the thinned tissue of the spinal cord, stretched from the inside by the cerebrospinal fluid (cerebrospinal fluid, which is involved in feeding the nervous system). It is called myelotsisotsele,
- spinabifidaocculta (in translation - latent spina bifida) - there are congenital prerequisites for the development of hernial protrusion in the form of spinal canal abnormality (arches or vertebral bodies), but there is no hernial protrusion as such
- complicatedthe form - characterized by a combination of one of the above forms of spinal hernia with benign tumors (lipomas, fibromas), which are fixed to the membranes, the spinal cord or its roots.
- The exact causes of the development of spinal hernia are unknown.
- It is assumed that their formation is associated with abnormal development of the spine and spinal cord. The likelihood of developing this anomaly increases with a lack of vitamins (especially folic acid).
A neurologist will help in the treatment of the disease.
Types of pathological education
Spinal hernia can form in any part of the spine. Some types of the disease occur in a mild form, they are characterized by small violations and a minimum of side effects with mild symptoms. Others, on the contrary, lead to serious consequences, disability and disruption of the normal life of a child or adult. Localization of spinal hernia, depending on the field of education:
- Cervical region. The rarest form of the disease, manifested by a tumor in the upper back. It manifests pathologies in the functioning of various muscles of the face and neck, including the throat: the vocal cords suffer. May affect the heart and respiratory system.
- Thoracic department. As with the cervical form, it causes defects in the facial muscles, larynx, heart and respiratory system. It may also affect the work of the digestive tract, including the liver, spleen.
- Lumbar spine. Pathology is accompanied by a violation of motor abilities, gastrointestinal tract, urinary system.
In addition to classification by place of origin, spinal hernia of varying severity is isolated. The mildest form is meningocele, in which only the brain membrane passes into the space between the vertebrae, but it itself maintains its normal position.
The second form of severity is meningomyelocele, in which a spinal substance extends beyond the spinal cord. The neural tube is preserved in its normal state, but neurological problems are already observed in a child or an adult.
The third, one of the most severe forms of cerebrospinal hernia, is meningoradiculocele, in which the newborn has an exit from the open space not only of the brain and its sheath, but also of the nerve roots and the nerves themselves. However, the integrity of the tube is still maintained.
Any condition of the newborn patient, even if it is the first stage of a hernia, may be accompanied by a spinal tumor. New growth can be both benign and malignant. It greatly complicates treatment and surgery, but in the absence of surgery, the risk of any tumor reincarnation and its subsequent growth is high.
Acquired hernia in adults
Despite the fact that spinal hernia in newborns occurs several times more often, in adults it is also accompanied by severe symptoms and difficult treatment. And the reasons for this state are many:
- lack of adequate treatment of osteochondrosis,
- serious spinal injury,
- significant excess weight
- constant dragging,
- uncomfortable working postures
- sharp movements and twisting of the spine,
- passion for power sports.
Clinical manifestation of the disease
It happens that a spinal hernia that occurs in a mild form in a newborn does not appear until a certain age. The first symptoms occur during intense physical exertion. Sometimes the disease is detected in the diagnosis of back pain. The exception is when the spinal sac is formed immediately after birth and is visually noticeable. If treatment is not followed, then the neurological symptoms will increase during the first years of life.
Among the overall picture of the clinical manifestations of spinal cord hernia are the following:
- formation in the spine of the tumor with a soft texture, it is covered with a thin skin of bluish or red color, similar to the mucous membrane,
- acute weakness is observed in the extremities, reaching paralysis, the patient has decreased motor activity, and the arms and legs are almost always in a bent position,
- in severe cases there is marked atrophy of muscle fibers,
- the patient's sensitivity to temperature, pain, and other effects is impaired,
- trophic changes gradually occur: ulcers, dry skin, edema,
- a sharp extinction of reflexes in newborns: knee, plantar and prehensile,
- there are epileptic seizures, in 30% of cases, hydrocephalus develops in children, in adults there is mental retardation,
- problems with the pelvic functions - incontinence,
- pronounced defects of the legs and arms, incorrect position of the limbs.
Severe symptoms lead to the complete impossibility of an adult to provide for spinal hernia. Patients with a severe form of the disease often develop internal organ diseases, and because of fluid retention, intracranial pressure increases, which can cause serious diseases such as meningitis or encephalitis. When bed rest, there is often inflammation in the lungs.
If the spinal hernia is located in the cervical region, then it is not characterized by such symptoms as in other forms: the patient's hands hurt and numb, there is discomfort in the chest or shoulder girdle, sudden pressure drops and often headaches occur. With chest hernia, pain often affects the heart, intercostal neuralgia occurs, as well as other symptoms of the cardiovascular system.
If the patient develops a lumbar spinal hernia, then it is accompanied by pain in the buttocks, thighs, numbness of these parts, extending to the legs. Sometimes there is such an unusual symptom as numbness in the groin area.
Among the common symptoms that should be a reason for going to the doctor, there are: constant pain along the spine, regardless of stress, constant tension of the muscles of the back, numbness in different parts of the limbs, as well as in the groin, reduction of the volume of movements.
Spinal hernia is a serious pathology, which in most cases requires surgical intervention. However, light stages are eliminated by conservative methods. If there are no serious symptoms, the patient is prescribed bed rest for at least 3 months. Banned any kind of physical activity.
- acupuncture - restores mobility, relieves cramps,
- gymnastics in the period after the main treatment,
- vacuum therapy to prevent recurrence
- massage - eliminates puffiness, muscle tension.
The main treatment is based on the admission of certain drugs that eliminate the causes of the formation of spinal hernia. NSAIDs are used to relieve pain in the acute period.Nootropics and neurotrophies are also used to normalize nerve tissue. Be sure to take vitamins, normalizing metabolic processes.
Why does a hernia appear in children?
Formed spinal hernia in newborns as a result of the pathological course of pregnancy:
- deficiency of folic acid and other vitamins - the main cause of the pathology of the nervous system,
- factors arising from women: alcoholism, drug addiction, infection with parasites and infections, intoxication on the background of injuries,
- early age - the onset of pregnancy in 10-15 years,
- hereditary factors that have no explanation.
Conducted at 19-26 weeks of pregnancy. Using materials and tools, the doctor closes the anomalous hole in the spine, causing the brain to fall into place. After the operation, the patient is assigned a caesarean section, since the natural generic process leads to relapse in 80% of cases..
There are practically no consequences after perinatal intervention, you just need to be constantly monitored by a doctor. In most cases, there is an almost complete recovery of the spine. However, these operations are carried out only in Israeli and Western clinics.
The efficiency of spinal hernia removal in a newborn is high only in the first days after the birth. If you delay, after the intervention, the child will forever remain a mental disabled person with severe physical disability.
When conducting surgery after childbirth, the risk of relapse is high. If congenital hydrocephalus joins pathology, then the life time of a small patient is reduced by tens of years.
Disruption of the body structures
The hidden type of the disease or the formation of a hernia. In the first case, there are no bright clinical manifestations, no pathological neoplasm is formed.There is a violation of only one spinal segment, with a slight depression in the area of the affected area. Rarely interferes with normal life. The second option is considered a severe form, with a hernia, and the external manifestation of pathology. With timely treatment, the nerve roots are not deformed and perform their functions. The complication affects the spinal cord and brain, mobility is limited, mental retardation is sometimes observed,
Hernial sac structure
In some cases, includes the shell of the spinal cord, does not cause serious consequences. If the pathology has affected the substance of the spinal cord, there is a neurological damage of a peripheral or central nature,
Any form of pathology should not be overlooked, even if it doesn’t manifest itself. Spinal hernia leads to disability or death of the patient. Therefore, it is one of the most dangerous diseases requiring immediate treatment.
Signs of disease
Symptomatology depends on the prevalence and composition of the neoplasm. It is less pronounced with a small size, if the structure of the protrusion is exclusively the meninges. In this case, the formation of the spinal column has passed normally, neurology is not fixed, there is only prolapse hidden by thin skin. Other symptoms that are more severe indicate the exit through the non-accreted arms of the spinal roots:
- Numbness in the area of the thigh, shin, foot,
- Decreased pain and tactile sensitivity,
- Trophic complications, manifested as dry skin, swelling of the legs,
- Dysfunction of the pelvic organs. Spontaneous defecation and urination,
- Hydrocephalus. Increase the size of the upper part of the head.
Adults are subject to the same symptoms with the exception of brain edema. But the main symptom of the disease are pain during physical work or a long stay in one position. Increased when coughing or sneezing. The pain gradually becomes unbearable. The disease may not manifest for a long time, until the nerve root is pinched. In the advanced stage, a visually noticeable protrusion occurs at the site of hernia.
Sometimes a spinal hernia is formed in the cervical or thoracic region, in which case the symptoms will be:
- The pains of the muscles of the hands, especially the fingers,
- Unstable blood pressure, dizziness, fatigue,
- Insomnia, confusion, memory problems,
- Unpleasant sensations while inhaling
- Discomfort in the ribs and shoulder blades,
- Heart colic, during physical work,
- Numbness in the chest area,
The appearance of the first signs of pathology in children is difficult not to notice, treatment should begin immediately, and the delay will inevitably lead to dire consequences. In adulthood, the symptoms of the disease are not specific and require more in-depth study by a specialist, often mistakenly perceived as features of other diseases. Patients with the manifestation of such signs of the disease, requires constant care and monitoring by the attending physician.
Definition of disease
Diagnosis of the disease is possible in the first weeks of fetal development, if a woman is registered on time, and follows all doctor's prescriptions. If serious violations are detected, abortion is recommended. In other situations, the hernia is removed in the 1st month of the child's life. Before birth, the problem is detected with the help of special instruments and analyzes:
- Ultrasound procedure,
- Examination of blood samples
- The study of amniotic fluid.
If the pathology is acquired, the diagnosis requires versatile and more thorough, it is possible with the work of several specialists:
- Anamnesis. Patient complaints, analysis of clinical examinations,
- Inspection. It involves a visual study of the neoplasm, checking muscle tone, foot reflexes,
- Determination of the nature and content of the hernia, by x-ray,
- Computed tomography in two projections
Timely diagnosis, the key to successful treatment. The disease manifests itself at any age, so you need to be attentive to any symptoms and immediately consult a doctor. Do not wait for irreversible consequences, we are talking about at least disability.
The choice of method is determined by the severity of the disease, if the hernia is small and without complications, bed rest is prescribed for 3 months. The patient should lie solely on the back, legs raised with a folded blanket or pillow. In the period of acute pain nonsteroidal and anti-inflammatory drugs are used. Prohibited any physical activity. After elimination of the pain syndrome, the course of physiotherapy begins:
- Acupuncture, restores limb mobility,
- Laser therapy, promotes the regeneration of damaged tissues,
- Vacuum therapy, prevents recurrence of the disease,
- Massage, relieves muscle tension, removes residual swelling,
- Special gymnastics, consolidation of the results of treatment, full restoration of the functions of the musculoskeletal system.
Treatment of spinal hernia using traditional methods is effective; if you precisely observe all the settings and be patient, it will take a lot of time to feel the first results. Unlike other types of hernia, less likely to be cured by a conservative way, due to the danger of complications and critical consequences.
Appointed in emergency situations, if the pathology threatens the life and health of the patient. In the case of babies, removal is necessary in the first week of life. The operation should eliminate the hernial sac and close the spinal defect. In the process, the neurosurgeon identifies non-viable tissues that are removed. The disease is accompanied by hydrocephalus, for the prevention of its development put a shunt, diverting the CSF in the thoracic lymphatic flow. In adults it happens that a neoplasm does not initially carry a great danger, but as a result of an unhealthy lifestyle and self-treatment, the disease enters the acute stage. If conservative treatment has no effect for 6 months, only surgery.
In some situations, the surgical method is used with a delay, forcing events will negatively affect the patient's condition. A spinal hernia is a serious ailment, it is best treated by removing a neoplasm, but even this does not guarantee the full development of physical and mental abilities. Therefore, prevention in early pregnancy is important. Discovered on the ultrasound hernia, the first step to recovery.