Hernia of the abdomen and esophagus

Abdominal hernia: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Abdominal hernia is a prolapse of the internal organs or their parts through a pathological congenital or acquired opening in the muscle wall of the peritoneum. This bulge is usually covered with a parietal abdominal sheet. Hernial formation tends to grow, reaching a huge size, and occurs most often in people in the elderly and children.

Manifestation of a pathological flaw characteristic pain and the occurrence of a tubercle in the abdomen.

The disease does not go away on its own, and no conspiracies or traditional medicine can eliminate the pathological protrusion. If the first signs appear, it is recommended not to delay a visit to the doctor in order to prevent the development of complications of this disease.

How manifest

Signs of abdominal hernia vary according to the area of ​​protrusion and the progression of the disease. Among the main manifestations of the disease can be distinguished occurrence of bulge (swelling). It is formed in the area of ​​the umbilical ring, postoperative scar, midline of the abdomen or groin.

For self-identification of the pathological process, one should take a horizontal position of the body, because a hernia on the abdomen appears only when the patient is standing or sitting, and also when coughing, sneezing and straining.

In the prone position, not restrained protrusion is reset independently. During the inspection it is elastic, mobile and has the ability to change the outlines.

Abdominal hernia has the following symptoms:

  • Projection of pain in the area of ​​localization.
  • The appearance of a feeling of squeezing and burning.
  • Perhaps the emergence of nausea, bloating.
  • In some cases, the general condition of the patient worsens and characteristic weakness appears.

If the hernial protrusion is formed in the lower abdomen, then urination may be impaired. Symptoms of a hernia of a stomach at women, men and children generally differ in nothing among themselves. Girls and women may take the symptoms of hernial protrusion for manifestations of another disease, the symptoms of which are not typical of men and children.

What are

The protrusions can be internal and external. External abdominal hernias are characterized by the emergence of internal organs together with the abdominal parietal leaflet. In this case, the hernial ring is formed in the muscular aponeurotic layer of the abdominal wall, and the integrity of the skin is preserved. Internal abdominal hernias are distinguished by the fact that they form inside the peritoneum in the area of ​​the abdominal folds and pockets or penetrate the cavity of the sternum through acquired or natural cracks and openings of the diaphragm.

In accordance with the international classification, the following types of hernia can be distinguished:

  1. Femoral - the emergence of the femoral artery, vein and nerve in the thigh from the peritoneum. Usually this space is limited, but in some cases it increases to such an extent that the intestine or another intra-abdominal organ penetrates it. The bulge is below the inguinal fold approximately in the middle of the femoral surface. This type of protrusion is most often diagnosed in women and has a high risk of becoming unreducible.
  2. Inguinal - occurs in 75% of cases of development of protrusion of the peritoneal organs and is diagnosed more often in men. Pathological process develops in the transition of the femoral surface in the body. There are several types of inguinal hernia, each of which has a different mechanism of formation.
  3. Umbilical - a widespread pathology, which is often determined in children after birth. This is due to the fact that the anatomical hole in the abdominal cavity, which should normally close before birth, remains open. If this hole is small, then the protrusion passes independently by about 2 years of age. If the hernia does not close on its own, then a planned surgical operation is appointed at the age of 2-4 years. In adults, it may also develop due to weakening of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall.
  4. Postoperative - after abdominal surgery, there is a defect in the abdominal wall. According to statistics, pathology develops in 2-10% of patients. Even after surgical treatment, postoperative protrusions may reappear.


It is necessary to highlight this type of disease, as a hernia of the spigelian line of the abdomen, which is a protrusion in the region of the ilium This type of pathological protrusion of the internal organs is very rare in both sexes with the same frequency.

A hernia of the oblique abdominal muscle is the development of a protrusion in the groin area. The prolapse of the internal organs occurs through the way in which, during the period of embryonic development in men, the testes descended into the scrotal area. The descent into the scrotum of the hernial sac is rarely diagnosed.

Causes of development

The etiology of the development of hernial protrusion lies in the congenital defects of the structure of the abdominal wall. Also, this disease can occur with the expansion of the muscular hole and thinning or loss of tissue elasticity. A wound or injury to the abdominal wall can cause the development of degenerative changes in the surgical incision line, which contributes to the formation of postoperative ventral protrusions.

The most pronounced predisposing factor for the occurrence of hernias in the abdomen is an increase in intra-abdominal pressure due to heavy physical labor, cough, chronic lung disease, difficulty urinating, pregnancy, prolonged constipation, tumors of the abdominal cavity, ascites, obesity and meteorism.

Establishing diagnosis

To determine the abdominal hernia, you should go to see a surgeon or urologist. The doctor conducts an objective examination and evaluates the patient's complaints. Mandatory inspection of the protrusion is carried out to determine its size and shape. A palpation examination is also performed to determine the degree of visibility, the size of the opening of the inguinal canal.

As a more revealing diagnostic procedure, the cough shock method is used.

When coughing, the jerky pressure of the hernial contents on the tip of a finger placed in the inguinal canal provides a more informative picture of the course of the disease. It is also recommended to undergo research activities such as auscultation and percussion, with which you can find out which organ is in the hernial bag.

Differential diagnosis of abdominal hernia allows to exclude the presence of such diseases as lipoma, abscess, inguinal lymphadenitis, dropsy of the testicles, cryptorchidism, varicocele and orchepididymitis.

Complications of the disease

The most dangerous and frequent consequence of the pathological protrusion is pinching of the abdominal hernia. With the development of infringement in the organ located in the area of ​​the hernial sac or its part, the blood supply is stopped. A strangulated abdominal hernia is accompanied by a characteristic pain syndrome, weakness and symptoms of intestinal obstruction, in particular, vomiting and nausea. In rare cases, body temperature may rise slightly.

Infringement is an indication for urgent surgery. Untimely seeking medical help may cause gangrene to form. Some unrecoverable hernias are not impaired, so when a protrusion appears, you should consult with your doctor to determine the exact diagnosis and assign the appropriate treatment in each case individually.

Direct hernia

Acquired forms of emergence of the organ in the groin area are characterized by blurred symptoms and sluggish passage. The first symptoms of abdominal hernia in men may appear unexpectedly. While the hernia is small, it does not cause pain. If it has been around for quite a long time, then the patient complains of an uncomfortable condition. Pain arises with its growth. Then the patient says that he is worried about the constant pain in the lower abdomen and groin. Discomfort can be in the area of ​​the sacrum, lower back.

At first, such a hernia in men and women looks like a small elongated protrusion located near the groin. This hernia makes itself felt during exercise and then disappears. But as soon as the painful sensations become permanent, the protrusion is visible in any state of the body. After some time, adhesions form and they cause pain. If the bladder, uterus or ovaries (in women) get into the bag, it can lead to impaired urination, pain during menstruation. In some cases, the inguinal ring can pinch a blood vessel, causing acute pain. The condition is dangerous in that necrosis of the tissue can begin, and the infection will spread throughout the abdominal cavity.

Umbilical hernia

Causes of umbilical hernia of the abdomen:

  1. Congenital expansion of the umbilical ring when the scar does not reach the end and there is a small hole. It may not show up in childhood, but over time, under certain conditions, a hernia can form.
  2. Pregnancy and childbirth. During pregnancy, the abdomen of women increases, the navel of this stretches. There are constipation, which leads to an increase in pressure inside the abdomen. Very high risk for women who gave birth repeatedly and during pregnancy did not follow the advice of a doctor. Also to the appearance of a hernia lead to difficult childbirth, a large child, multiple pregnancies.
  3. Inactive life. If a person does not engage in physical culture, his press is much weaker.
  4. Big loads. At the time of lifting the pressure inside the abdomen becomes higher.
  5. Diseases accompanied by high intra-abdominal pressure. These can be abnormalities in the digestive system, frequent constipation, persistent coughing and so on.
  6. Excess weight. Subcutaneous fat is an additional volume that leads to an umbilical hernia.
  7. Transferred operation. A hernia near the navel may also appear after surgery.

Femoral hernia

By femoral hernia, it is customary to imply a pathology in which the organs of the abdominal cavity (as a rule, the intestines and omentum) move beyond the permissible limits.

About the presence of femoral hernia say:

  1. The appearance of a dense tumor of small size between the groin and the thigh, "hiding" if the patient lays down.
  2. Pain in the thigh when walking, any kind of physical exertion.

Diagnosis of the disease involved the surgeon. Most often, the doctor applies the following methods:

  1. Irrigoscopy - X-ray analysis of the colon. The patient is administered barium sulfate. After the substance is evenly distributed throughout the body, the doctor assesses the condition of the intestines. In the last stage, the intestine is filled with air in order to examine it for the presence of various kinds of polyps, ulcers, and the like.
  2. Herniography - the introduction of a special composition in the abdominal cavity. A substance is administered to the patient, pre-anesthetized. After that, take a picture. The whole process takes no more than sixty minutes.

At first, the patient is only worried about tingling in the area of ​​the hernia during exercise. It would not be superfluous to clarify that at first the sensations are almost invisible, but as they develop, they become stronger and stronger. Further, a rather dense tumor is formed, which increases in diameter under load and disappears in the absence of it. Bulging increases significantly in size and ceases to disappear.

Hernia of the white line

A white hernia of the abdomen in children and adults is considered to be a tendinous structure, which is located from the chest to the pubis, clearly located in the middle. Here tendons are combined, located on both sides of the oblique muscle of the abdomen.

Abdominal line hernia - protrusion of a small portion of the abdominal organ under the skin (near the white line). At the initial stage, the pathology is painless and does not greatly disturb the patient. But over time, the disease develops and infringement can occur - the organs of the bag are compressed with an incompressible tendon ring, where they exit. This is dangerous for humans and requires urgent surgical intervention. Indeed, this is the only way to cure pathology. Without surgery, the patient can only slightly reduce the protrusion. But this will not cure, but only reduce the tone of the tendon and allow the hole to stretch even more. The operation of the hernia of the white line of the abdomen is quite simple, and it always goes well. There are three types of hernia:

  • supra-umbilical hernia,
  • near the navel
  • below the navel.

The latter is usually rare. Pain in trauma to the lateral and medial meniscus are different. If the cartilage is injured, an acute pain occurs.

Diagnostics

To accurately establish the diagnosis, it is necessary to check with a gastroenterologist specializing in this area. Sometimes a doctor costs only by visual examination, however, there are cases in which a simple examination is not enough. In such moments, you have to resort to one of the following methods for diagnosing a hernia of the abdomen:

  1. Ultrasound. This method is familiar to everyone, but to recall its principle will not be superfluous. Gel is applied to the study area. Using the device, the doctor conducts a scan of the internal organs that are displayed on the monitor.
  2. Survey radiography of the abdominal cavity. It can be performed while lying and standing. For problems with the intestines and stomach, the second option is preferable. Before the procedure, you must remove all the jewelry.
  3. Radiography of the passage of barium. The patient drinks a barium drink. Forty-five minutes later the patient is placed on the table, the apparatus is induced on him. Having given the command "do not breathe," the doctor takes a photo.

There are several types of abdominal hernia surgery:

  1. Standard - hernioplasty, done with complications or scheduled according to plan.
  2. An operation that is performed with the help of our own tissue or with the use of synthetic implants in order to close the defect. It is done laparoscopically, according to the method of Liechtenstein or through hernioplasty.
  3. Obstructive type of surgery is used to eliminate the umbilical defects.

Previously, the removal of a hernia was limited by the need to close the defect with a nearby tissue, which is practiced now, but less active. Operational intervention is done through an incision of ten to twelve centimeters, the hernial sac is separated and removed, and the organ is returned to its original place.

After removal, the plastic is made with a tissue, by flashing the muscles into the inguinal ligament.

The operation of the hernia of the white line of the abdomen with the help of tension plastic has a number of minuses and much less advantages:

  1. Long recovery after surgery, you will need to eliminate physical education classes, change the diet for at least six months.
  2. The bulging of the place where there was a hernia after abdominal surgery may come back.
  3. Painful sensations, a scar may heal poorly, and inflammation may appear.
  4. A hernia may form after surgery in the place where the scar was.

Folk remedies

Traditional medicine offers many options for the treatment of abdominal hernia. The most common ones are:

  • In the early stages of a hernia, it is recommended to drink mummy (0.2 g) dissolved in a glass of water every morning. The treatment lasts at least two weeks.
  • Gooseberry decoction has a beneficial effect in combating the problem. The leaves should be crushed, two tablespoons of the resulting mass pour boiling water, it will take about two glasses of water. After a couple of hours, when the medicine is sufficiently infused and ready, use 1/3 cup up to five times a day.
  • Broth clover will be useful for strengthening the weak walls of the abdomen and muscle tissue. It will take a teaspoon of the plant in a glass of boiling water. It is applied on 1/3 glasses, to food.
  • Brine from sauerkraut will help in the treatment. Cabbage sheets or compress with brine should be applied to the place of hernia formation. Perform the procedure you need to constantly.
  • A solution of vinegar 4% for daily rubbing the site of a hernia. To prepare just one tablespoon of vinegar, diluted in a glass of cold water. After wiping is done, it is recommended to apply a compress with infusion of oak bark.
  • The use of tincture prepared from the root of the plakun-herb (wolfberry silt) will have a positive effect. Two teaspoons of the plant pour a glass of boiling water, should insist in a thermos. After two hours the tool is ready for use. It is enough to drink 1/3 cup three times a day.

Prevention

Prevention of abdominal hernia consists of several points.

1. Compliance with certain rules of nutrition:

  • split meals
  • complete elimination of smoked meats and sausages from the diet,
  • overeating is not allowed,
  • it is recommended to limit sugar intake,
  • a diet enriched with vegetables and fish.

The state of the body depends on the food intake, so it is extremely important to stick to a diet.

2. Reception of necessary vitamins. In order to prevent hernia, it is also recommended to take vitamin complexes that allow you to maintain a healthy state of the body, strengthen it and restore it. Taking the following vitamins will reduce the risk of abdominal hernia:

  • magnesium (buckwheat, nuts and cheeses),
  • vitamin C (citrus, kiwi, greens),
  • vitamin B (eggs, peas, beans),
  • vitamin A (carrots, fish, cantaloupe, peaches).

3. Exercise. Regular performance of certain physical exercises will prevent the depletion of the abdominal walls, which, in turn, will reduce the likelihood of a hernia:

  • pull-ups from a supine position, bending the knees,
  • twisting the press, it is also necessary to take a prone position, having touched the knees with elbows, to return to the starting position,
  • alternate straightening of the legs from a prone position, previously legs are bent at the knees.

To prevent abdominal hernia surgery, you must comply with the above measures and constantly monitor the state of health.

×òî òàêîå ãðûæà æèâîòà

Ãðûæà æèâîòà – ýòî âûïÿ÷èâàíèå èç áðþøíîé ïîëîñòè âíóòðåííîñòåé âìåñòå ñ ïîêðûâàþùèì èõ ïðèñòåíî÷íûì ëèñòêîì áðþøèíû ÷åðåç "ñëàáûå» ìåñòà áðþøíîé ñòåíêè ïîä êîæó èëè â ðàçëè÷íûå êàðìàíû è ñóìêè áðþøèíû. Îòëè÷èòåëüíûé ïðèçíàê ãðûæè æèâîòà — ñîõðàíåíèå ïîêðîâíûõ îáîëî÷åê (áðþøèíû).

Ãðûæà æèâîòà ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñàìîé ðàñïðîñòðàíåííîé ïàòîëîãèåé, òðåáóþùåé îïåðàòèâíîãî âìåøàòåëüñòâà. Ñòðàäàþò äàííûì çàáîëåâàíèåì äî 50 ÷åëîâåê íà 10 000 íàñåëåíèÿ. Ãðûæè æèâîòà íàáëþäàþò â ëþáîì âîçðàñòå, íî íàèáîëåå ÷àñòî ó äåòåé äîøêîëüíîãî âîçðàñòà è ó ëþäåé ïîñëå 50 ëåò.

Ó ìóæ÷èí ãðûæà æèâîòà îáðàçóåòñÿ ÷àùå, ÷åì ó æåíùèí. Íàèáîëåå ÷àñòî ôîðìèðóþòñÿ ïàõîâûå (75-80%), çàòåì ïîñëåîïåðàöèîííûå (8-10%) è ïóïî÷íûå (3-8%).

Âíåøíå ãðûæà æèâîòà âûãëÿäèò êàê âûïÿ÷èâàíèå. Ïàëüïèðóÿ ýòó çîíó, ìîæíî ÷óâñòâîâàòü êðåïêîå îáðàçîâàíèå, èç-çà ýòîãî ïîÿâëÿþòñÿ áîëåâûå îùóùåíèÿ.

Åñëè ïðîèñõîäèò ñäàâëåíèå, ãðûæà æèâîòà ìîæåò ñîïðîâîæäàòüñÿ óùåìëåíèåì.  òàêèõ ñëó÷àÿõ â ñäàâëåííûõ, óùåìëåííûõ îðãàíàõ, íàõîäÿùèõñÿ â ãðûæåâîì ìåøêå, íàñòóïàåò ðàññòðîéñòâî êðîâîîáðàùåíèÿ, âïëîòü äî îìåðòâåíèÿ ýòèõ îðãàíîâ, ÷òî ïðåäñòàâëÿåò îïàñíîñòü äëÿ æèçíè áîëüíîãî, ïîýòîìó ãðûæè ïîäëåæàò õèðóðãè÷åñêîìó ëå÷åíèþ.

Ïûòàòüñÿ âïðàâèòü ãðûæó íå ñëåäóåò, ò.ê. ýòî ìîæåò ïðèâåñòè ê òÿæåëûì îñëîæíåíèÿì. ×åðåç 2—3 ÷ ïîñëå óùåìëåíèÿ íàñòóïàåò îìåðòâåíèå óùåìëåííîãî ó÷àñòêà. Ïîýòîìó òàê âàæíî êàê ìîæíî áûñòðåå äîñòàâèòü áîëüíîãî â õèðóðãè÷åñêîå îòäåëåíèå. Íà îáëàñòü ãðûæè ìîæíî ïîëîæèòü ïóçûðü ñî ëüäîì, ÷òî íåñêîëüêî îáëåã÷èò ñòðàäàíèÿ áîëüíîãî.

Êîíñåðâàòèâíîå ëå÷åíèå ïðîâîäÿò ïðè ïóïî÷íûõ ãðûæàõ ó äåòåé. Îíî çàêëþ÷àåòñÿ â ïðèìåíåíèè ïîâÿçîê ñ ïåëîòîì, ÷òî ïðåïÿòñòâóåò âûõîæäåíèþ âíóòðåííèõ îðãàíîâ. Ó âçðîñëûõ ïðèìåíÿþò ðàçëè÷íîãî âèäà áàíäàæè.

Nature of the disease

The disease is characterized by the appearance of convex formations, with the peritoneum coming out with the internal organs. The bag extends beyond the abdominal wall due to the presence of defects in the epithelium. In this case, the integrity of the skin is not broken. The protrusions are divided into internal and external.

This is a very unpleasant disease, it has a severe course. The patient feels a strong discomfort, the affected area begins to ache and swell, it is difficult to perform ordinary everyday and everyday functions. Appearance changes, non-aesthetic bulges lead to the formation and development of complexes. In parallel, serious disorders of the nervous system can develop.

If it is not timely to identify symptoms and do not seek medical help, serious consequences, even death, are possible. Protrusions are especially dangerous if pinchings of internal organs are formed when they occur. A strangulated hernia disrupts blood circulation, the full functioning of the organs and the whole body, it is life threatening.

Basically, the disease is formed due to the weakening of the connective tissues and abdominal muscles in the anterior wall, and with an increase in internal pressure in the abdominal cavity. As a result, the internal organs are squeezed out through the formed defects. The factors that influence the formation of protrusions are different and individual for each case, depending on the species.

  1. genetic predisposition
  2. features of the body and structure,
  3. presence of birth defects On the photo hernia
  4. excess weight,
  5. injuries to the abdomen,
  6. severe pregnancy and childbirth in women
  7. chronic bowel disease, constipation,
  8. weight lifting
  9. excessive exercise
  10. complications after surgery,
  11. in young children there is a hernia due to prolonged crying.

The course of the disease is different. Seals differ in appearance, location, intensity of symptoms. In the hernial sac can be only one organ or several at once, the shape and size of the hernia depends on it.

In men, hernia is more likely to appear in the groin area, depending on the particular development and the presence of an expanded inguinal canal. There is a risk that the seal will drop into the scrotum. It is worth getting rid of the problem at the initial stage of development in order to avoid complications.

What is abdominal hernia?

A hernial defect is a pathological process in which an internal organ or part of it is able to exit through artificially created or natural openings in the human body. From Latin hernia - "hernia". In medical terminology, there are values ​​close to this process - eventration (an acutely forming defect in the muscular and aponeurotic layers of the abdominal wall through which an organ can exit) and prolapse (elimination of the organ through natural holes in the process of omission). Each hernia has obligatory components:

  • bulging organ, its part or another tissue - hernial content,
  • the hole or channel through which the contents will exit - the hernial ring,
  • sheaths covering the outgrown organs - hernial sac. They can consist of skin, scar tissue and connective tissue structures - fascia. In the bag itself, the mouth, neck, body and bottom are distinguished.

  • the most common hernias are inguinal - 75 - 85% of all cases,
  • first introduced the term "hernia" - Claudius Galen,
  • there is the concept of "giant" hernia. They reach over forty centimeters in diameter,
  • multiple hernias are more often diagnosed for one person than single ones.

Why does she appear?

The main reason for the formation of hernias is an imbalance between intra-abdominal pressure and the ability of the anatomical structures of the abdominal wall to counteract it. There are producing factors:

  • prolonged cough, especially in chronic diseases of the respiratory system,
  • screaming or crying in infancy
  • heavy lifting
  • long-term constipation
  • difficulty urinating, for example, prostate adenoma,
  • difficult childbirth.

Also distinguish the predisposing causes:

  • sedentary lifestyle - weakens the muscular frame,
  • pronounced exhaustion - in norm various natural openings are filled with fatty tissue, and in its absence, the prerequisites for the formation of hernias are created,
  • genetically determined predisposition to hernial protrusions. Including hereditary disorders of the connective tissue structure, for example, with Marfan syndrome,
  • age-laxity of the muscles of the abdominal wall,
  • occupational hazard - in such works as a loader, a musician (playing wind instruments),
  • trauma and surgery on the abdominal wall.

With the interaction of all factors, the risks of developing a hernial defect increase in some cases to 60–80%.

Signs of ventral hernia

Characteristic features are:

  • pain arising from coughing, straining, lifting various weights,
  • burning sensation and heaviness in the stomach, scrotum or groin,
  • the appearance of a specific swelling or protrusion in the abdominal region, which can increase during exercise and disappear in a horizontal position,
  • a peculiar sensation, as if something had "ruptured" (occurs when there is a defect in the muscle frame).

Hernia of the abdomen in women

Fortunately, for our fair sex the problem of hernia is not so acute. More often, they are formed by men. The ratio of the different localizations of the hernial protrusions is different, but in general it is 1: 6. The main difference is perineal hernia, which forms much more often in women. It is the back and front. The first comes out through the rectal uterine cavity (excavatio vesicouterina). Passes through the cracks in the muscle, raising the anus, goes into the fatty tissue in the region of the anus. Hernial content - genitals, bladder. Anterior form can be felt between the ischium and vagina, it goes into the labia majora.

Also, women are more likely to have sciatic hernia. In pregnant women, the formation of hernias along the white line of the abdomen is possible, since the increasing uterus creates a strong pressure on the abdominal muscles, because of which they are able to disperse (diastasis). The longer the gestation period, the higher the chance of hernia formation.

What is dangerous hernia?

Every person who has developed this pathology should know about the possibility of complications. The most frequent and dangerous are:

  • infringement of hernial contents. It can not right back, pinched hernia gate. In the area of ​​infringement, necrosis (death) of an organ occurs, with possible development of peritonitis (an extensive inflammatory process in the abdominal cavity). Characteristic: deterioration of the general condition, severe acute pain in the area of ​​the hernia, it becomes swollen, painful when touched, hard, tense,
  • irreducibility. Occurs more often during the formation of adhesions between the bag and the contents of the hernia,
  • hernial sac phlegmon. With the irreducibility of a sharply increases the risk of infection from the skin or intestinal lumen. Content begins to fester. It becomes hyperemic (reddened), increased in volume due to edema, sharply painful. The body temperature rises strongly, there is a general weakness, malaise, headache and other symptoms of intoxication of the body,
  • coprostasis. If the contents of the hernia is a large intestine, then the stool may be stagnant due to a disorder of motor function.

Treatment of hernial defects

The conservative method is to:

  • wearing a special bandage that will support the hernial contents. It is selected only by a specialist
  • avoid lifting weights,
  • following a diet rich in fiber.

Contraindications to hernia repair are:

  • diabetes in decompensation,
  • recent myocardial infarction,
  • unstable angina,
  • severe heart failure
  • blood diseases.

During the operation, it is imperative to strengthen the weak points of the abdominal wall. For this purpose, one’s own human tissue or absorbable, composite or non-absorbable polypropylene mesh can be used. Currently, laparoscopic hernia procedures are preferred. After such an intervention, the risks of postoperative complications are noticeably reduced.

Conclusion

If the hernia is small and does not cause even minor discomfort, it is better to operate on it immediately, because it will not only avoid life-threatening conditions, but also allow you to no longer worry about your health.

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Symptoms of the disease

The illness is not immediately noticeable and makes itself felt after a certain period of time. Independently recognize the hernia of the white line is possible with constant monitoring of health status and tracking of various deviations.

  1. the presence of swelling of the affected area,
  2. the appearance of a slight convex neoplasm,
  3. pain symptoms that increase during exercise, weight lifting, coughing, straining,
  4. there are feelings of itching and burning in the affected area,
  5. ailments, discomfort,
  6. nausea, dizziness,
  7. feeling of heaviness in the stomach
  8. violation of urinary function.

To prevent dangerous consequences, you should know what a hernia is and monitor its development. Bulging at an early stage of a small size and may disappear when adopting a horizontal position, pain is weak at the same time.

The size of the neoplasm increases, does not disappear when lying down, the pain increases, unpleasant sensations arise, the chair is disturbed, and the general health condition deteriorates. There is no possibility of lifting even insignificant loads, to perform physical loads, working capacity decreases and general weakness appears.

In order not to confuse pathology and take timely measures to cure it, you need to know how it hurts and what a hernia of the stomach looks like.

Removal operation

The operation of the hernia is performed under general anesthesia to extract the internal organs from the hernial sac and release the restrained. Before surgery, the patient is prescribed a bandage. But long wear can on the contrary worsen the situation, under the bandage appears diaper rash, irritation or slight mechanical damage.

Perform two types of hernioplasty:

  1. Plastic using its own internal tissue. In this case, the identified defect is sutured. This method is applicable only for hernias of small size.
  2. Plastic with the use of biological and synthetic materials. The defect in the abdominal wall is closed with a prosthesis. The position of the polypropylene mesh is different and depends on the size of the hernial bag and the location of the affected area, after the time the mesh has a tendency to self-dissolve. With this method, the risk of recurrence is reduced, and recovery after surgery takes place in a short time.

Recovery after surgery is quick, if you follow all the rules and follow the recommendations of the doctor. In the postoperative period, painkillers are prescribed, you must wear a bandage, rest. Cost to reduce physical exertion and eliminate weight lifting. Daily dressings are performed, sutures are treated with antiseptics. For a speedy recovery it is helpful to follow a diet and take walks in the fresh air.

Folk treatment

It may happen that when the first signs of the disease are detected, there is no way to be examined, but it is impossible to disregard the disease in any way. To prevent possible complications, you can use the advice of traditional medicine as a remedy. Such a method is good only for a very limited time, since herbs cannot be cured, ointments and tinctures can not, you can only stabilize a little. If folk remedies are used for a long time and do not resort to medical treatment, this can lead to unpredictable results.

Of all the variety of traditional medicines to improve well-being and alleviate the condition, a compress based on oak bark and plantain ointment is best suited.

  • For a compress take 1 tsp. shallow dried bark, pour 1 cup of hot water (pre-boiled), boil for 10 minutes over low heat.In the resulting broth moistened gauze napkin, superimposed on the place of formation and aged for 3 hours, then change the bandage.
  • To make a curative ointment of plantain, a mixture is made up: plantain (leaves) + Indian onion + golden mustache (dry). The composition is placed in 1⁄2 l jar, add 8 tbsp. interior pork fat, pre-melted. The resulting product is carefully gently mixed, heated, then allowed to cool. Store the resulting ointment in the refrigerator, preventing freezing.
  • There are ways to relieve pain in popular recipes: make a compress from warm oatmeal, tie up a sore point, leave for the night.

Abdominal hernia is not only a serious ailment from the point of view of the general condition of the body, but also psychologically difficult, as the aesthetics of the appearance is disturbed. In addition, the disfiguring protrusions produce a repulsive impression. In order not to bring the situation to a critical one, one should be attentive to the slightest body signals of indisposition and promptly seek help if the painful sensations become permanent. It is better to spend time and money on treatment than to lose the most important thing - health, and maybe life itself.

Types of abdominal hernia and their signs

Abdominal hernia is congenital or acquired, occurs on the site of a weak muscle ligament. The divergence of muscles due to injury or atrophy leads to an increase in anatomical holes, which normally keep organs well, without passing them into other cavities. In the case of umbilical pathology, the umbilical ring expands, which often occurs in newborns as a result of fetal disorders. When the inguinal protrusion opens a ligament between the abdominal cavity and the inguinal canal, in which the intestinal loop, the omentum or the bladder protrudes. Defect of the white line often occurs on the background of injury or a sharp increase in intrauterine pressure.

Chronic cough can provoke the appearance of abdominal hernia, which is taken into account during the diagnosis of the disease. The transfer of abdominal trauma, the thinning of tissues against the background of aging, congenital anomalies of muscle tissue - all this triggers a pathological process and affects the appearance of various signs.

External defects show more pronounced symptoms, the bulge hurts, and causes discomfort when pressed. Internal defects are formed in a stuffing bag or in the area of ​​the diaphragm, they can be found only on examination by a specialist.

The main signs of abdominal protrusions:

  1. At the initial stage of the formation of a defect at the site of the pathology, the person feels a burning sensation or even itching, the area does not hurt, but there are unpleasant feelings
  2. Inguinal hernia in men contributes to the violation of sexual function, at an early stage of the formation of the disease the patient is faced with a decrease in potency and pain during sexual intercourse,
  3. The umbilical defect is often accompanied by digestive disorders, constipation or pronos. The part of the intestine, located in the hernial sac, can delay the fecal mass, which further leads to intestinal obstruction or perforation. In newborns, the navel bulge hurts, because children often act up,
  4. Abdominal bloating is not present in all patients, but may be the result of malnutrition. This symptom is dangerous because flatulence aggravates the hernia, causing an increase in the defect,
  5. Psychological discomfort: hernias affect not only the physical condition, but the psyche of the patient. Constant discomfort and concern for their health leads to irritability, depression, apathy, loss of interest in work.

All these manifestations require careful examination by a doctor, because such symptoms may also speak about other serious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and urinary system. The late detection of a hernia in the abdomen ends with the pinching of the organ, which may occur from the moment the pathology appears or after a few years, depending on the person's activity.

In male athletes, abdominal hernia complications occur more frequently.

Complicated hernia

Infringement is manifested by sharp pain, an increase in convexity, fever, tachycardia. This condition can last for several hours, after which an urgent operation is prescribed. Without treatment, a pinched hernia leads to internal bleeding, inflammation, peritonitis, because the earlier the diagnosis is made, the better the prognosis.

Complications and their signs:

  1. Jamming with necrosis, inflammation of the internal organs: intoxication, nausea, vomiting, fever, cold sweats appear, the skin turns pale, the stomach becomes hard,
  2. Difficult passage of feces through the intestines or complete obstruction: a surgical complication requiring removal of feces by cutting the intestine. Manifested by an increase in the volume of the abdomen, the absence of stool for several days under the condition of normal nutrition,
  3. Cellulitis of a pinched organ: purulent process occurs, poisoning of the body, spread of infection, may result in sepsis,

Male inguinal hernia is complicated by varicocele, and during the operation there is a risk of damage to the spermatic cord, which leads to infertility.

Watch the video: Hiatus hernia: signs, symptoms and treatment (September 2019).