Osteochondrosis

The gear muscles of the back: the functions and symptoms of disorders

The muscle is located under the diamond. It belongs to the third layer of the muscles covering the human back. The structure of the body is flat. Plump bunch - its lower part is the place where the dentate muscle is attached. The beams of the latter are sent down, obliquely, pass to the outer surface of 2-5 ribs, to which they are fastened, lateral to their corners.

The muscle, the beginning of which is the nuchal ligament, depending on the fitness of the body, may have a large number of beams, or it may be completely absent.

While reducing it, the upper part of the chest ribs is raised, which allows a person to breathe.

Closest neighbor

The upper back gear muscle, located in close proximity to the lower muscle of the same name. And that is located next to the broadest spinal muscle, directly in front of it. The beginning of its muscle takes also from the tendon plate, but located on the 1st and 2nd lumbar, as well as on the 11th and 12th thoracic vertebrae.

This muscle is also oblique, it is directed upwards and laterally. The muscle is involved in the act of inhaling and exhaling, as it lowers the ribs of the chest in its lower half.

Functioning

Both described muscles are classified as primary respiratory, as their contractions provide inspiration.

In order for the upper posterior gear-shaped muscle of the back to function correctly, blood is supplied to it by an artery located between the ribs. Another source of essential nutrients is the deep cervical artery. Intercostal nerves provide innervation of the organ.

Why muscle sore

The upper posterior serratus muscle is usually concerned with osteochondrosis, which affects the intervertebral discs in the upper chest. The first symptom of the disease is dull severe pain in the depths near the scapula.

To diagnose a problem, palpation is carried out by slightly displacing the scapula, followed by placing the hand in the armpit on the opposite side of the body. In this case, the patient's body should be slightly tilted forward, allowing his hands to hang freely.

Myofascial syndrome

MFBS is diagnosed by dull, constant, severe pain, wearing a local and segmental nature. At the same time, there are so-called trigger points where pain is concentrated. Palpation along the muscles can detect nodules. The neoplasms are located strictly along the fibers of the muscle and grow 2-5 mm in diameter.

Palpation is accompanied by a strong local, reflected pain. Each trigger point has its own pain zone and paresthesias. Upon contact with the site, there is a "jump syndrome" when the patient is reflexively seeking to distance himself from the source of sensations. This feature is attributed to the typical manifestations of MFBS.

In addition to active trigger points, there are latent. The first is characterized by spontaneous sharp sensations accompanying the load of the muscle, palpation. The second is the spontaneity of pain syndrome is not characteristic.

If the described points are present in a latent form, the upper posterior serratus muscle weakens, the organ functions are inhibited, and fatigue increases. If there are 2-3 points in the organ, between which there is a nerve or a bundle of such, then the likelihood of neurovascular compression is high.

MFBS is formed by stretching the muscle, sudden movements. The probability of MFBS is high, if the patient spent a long time in an uncomfortable antiphysiological posture, was exposed to an abnormally low or high temperature. The syndrome is observed with different length of legs, abnormal development of the pelvic ring, foot. In some cases, the reasons will be:

  • mental disorders,
  • metabolic disorders
  • improper nutrition.

Trigger point activation occurs when:

Reflected pain associated with MFBS, in the lower ribs, in the sternum below. It can be provoked by a work that compels a person to spend a long time standing, holding his hands up.

Training

The upper back gear muscle is pumped during the complex training of the muscles of the back. The most useful exercise, called "pullover." Besides him, practice:

  • deadlift
  • traction in the slope
  • thrust horizontally
  • scars (using dumbbells, barbells),
  • tilted weights,
  • traction T-neck.

It is recommended:

  1. Regularly engage with a frequency of 2-3 times a week. The first results will be noticeable in just 3 weeks.
  2. Warm up before class. With painful sensations, it is necessary to reduce the load or even completely stop the practice until the body is restored. Remember: overweight shifts the vertebrae, provoking hernia and injuries.
  3. Carefully control your breathing.
  4. Follow the technique of each exercise, keeping your back level.
  5. Increase the load gradually.
  6. Eat right.
  7. Monitor sleep and wakefulness.

Do not try to do all the exercises in one workout. Alternate them according to a prearranged program so that the load on different days is on different zones of the back. An integrated approach will help to become stronger, to train muscles, to achieve a beautiful figure. Do not try to concentrate solely on the upper back gear muscle, use the entire back in the program.

general characteristics

In the region of the spinal column, parallel to the ribs are two thin and flat muscles - the dentate muscles of the back. They are the link between the intercostal muscles and pectoral.

With the proper development of the gear organs consisting of muscle tissue, any of their tufts will be clearly visible.

Muscles should be distinguished:

  • upper back gear,
  • bottom gear.

The place where the back superior gear muscle of the back is located is the area under the rhomboid muscles. It originates from where the spinous processes of the vertebrae are present - I-II thoracic and VI-VII cervical.

Fastening to the back of the II-V ribs is carried out with the help of four teeth (forks), while the upper serrated muscle of the back is located in a downward direction along the oblique line.

The second species begins at the location of the spinous processes of the vertebrae - XI-XII thoracic and I-II lumbar. At the very beginning, the lower posterior serratus muscle of the back has the appearance of a tendinous plate, like the previous organ.

The back muscle is fastened with separate branches to IX-XII ribs.

Both the first and second organs are actively involved in the respiratory process. The task of the upper muscle is to raise the ribs, lower, in turn, lowers them.

With the simultaneous action of these organs, the chest expands.

Defeat of the upper muscle

When osteochondrosis of the upper thoracic vertebrae occurs, doctors diagnose the syndrome of the superior serratus muscle. Pathology may be accompanied by dull and deep pain in the area:

  • upper edge of the scapula,
  • shoulder
  • triceps muscle.

Such signs can be taken for the manifestation of compression of the nerve roots. True, no neurological disorders are detected.

On palpation, there is a thickening and painful discomfort. The patient may feel chest pain.

External examination will show that the roundness of the shoulders is absent, as is the case when the rhomboid and pectoralis major muscle is affected. The shoulders and the shoulder area in movement are unlimited.

Motor activity has practically no effect on the intensity of the manifestations. However, if we lift weights in such a way that the shoulder blade presses against the affected area, the pain will increase.

To diagnose the doctor resorts to the method of palpation.The patient, sitting on a chair, should bend over a little. The hand, which is located on the side where the examination is carried out, should hang freely.

Alternatively, you can place the brush in the muscle cavity on the opposite side to completely retract the scapula.

Elimination of the syndrome is carried out with the help of:

  • postisometric relaxation,
  • ischemic compression.

When using the second method, the patient is allowed to both sit and lie, turning on his stomach.

Damage of the lower muscle

The lower gear muscle of the back can lose its function when the upper and lower vertebral segments of the thoracic region are affected. Location of pain:

  • lower back,
  • lower edge region.

This symptom has a dull, chronic character. Due to the pronounced stress movement of the thoracolumbar are limited.

If such signs appear, an X-ray examination of the spinal column and chest organs is necessarily assigned to rule out the development of pleurisy.

Palpation helps to identify painful painful areas in the area where the muscles connect to the ribs.

For the treatment of the syndrome are assigned the same methods as in the previous case.

When conducting post-isometric relaxation, the patient may sit or lie on his side. If the patient is sitting, the following is done:

  1. Shifting the shoulder forward, the doctor pre-stretches the muscle. At the same time, the body of the patient is slightly bent so that there is a light and comfortable feeling of tissue tension. The addiction to stretching lasts about 3-5 seconds.
  2. The patient should inhale smoothly and slowly, and then, having stopped breathing, try to assume a neutral position. In this case, by a specialist is easy resistance. Efforts should be made minimal.
  3. A slow exhalation is made, the back relaxes, and the doctor performs passive stretching with an increase in the initial displacement of the body.
  4. The procedure should be carried out without stopping 4-6 times.

To conduct ischemic compression, the patient must lie on the stomach or on its side. In the first case, the specialist will glide over the muscle with his thumbs.

If a very painful point is detected, then a slow deep massage is performed in this place.

As medical practice shows, the effectiveness of treatment increases when ischemic compression is performed prior to the stretching procedure.

All the muscles of the back have their own purpose. And if problems arise with them, unpleasant manifestations will not take long to wait. To keep your back healthy, you need to consult a specialist in time.

Launched pathologies require long-term treatment and often turn into complications. Therefore, you should pay attention to the slightest discomfort in the back and follow all medical instructions.

A selection of my useful materials on the health of the spine and joints, which I recommend you to look at:

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Denial of responsibility

The information in the articles is intended solely for general information and should not be used for self-diagnosis of health problems or for medical purposes. This article is not a substitute for medical advice from a doctor (neurologist, therapist). Please consult your doctor first to know exactly the cause of your health problem.

Anatomy and function

The back muscles are an important integral part of the active motor function of the spine. Without them, no movement would have been possible. At the same time, they are used by the human body not only for movements, but also play an important static supporting role, supporting and fixing among themselves both individual elements of the spine - the vertebrae, and the spine as a whole, setting and supporting its natural curves.

Thus, the back muscles do not rest for a minute with an active, awake person in an upright position. You can imagine how tedious their work is.

We systematize the above, listing the main functions that the back muscles perform:

  1. Permanent fixation of the vertebrae between themselves to provide a fixed support. Without this, our
  2. twists and turns, bending and unbending would not be possible
  3. Keeping your back and neck upright
  4. Providing motor activity of all vertebral divisions
  5. Keeping the natural curvature of the back (cervical and lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis) within the desired limits
  6. Depreciation of the spine during active movements, leading to shocks, jolts and vibrations

The back muscles are not homogeneous muscle mass. There are many of them, and they are of different sizes, types and functions. They are superficial and deep. Both types consist of two layers.

They have their own characteristics, the main ones of which are:

  • Start
  • mount
  • the functions it performs

Two weak spots of the back. External oblique and internal oblique are involved in the formation of two important parts of the human body, the weakness of which may contribute to the development of lumbar hernia.

These are the so-called:

  1. The lumbar triangle, which is also called the Pti triangle.
  2. The lumbar quad of the Grünfeld-Lesgaft.

The triangle of Pti is a section of the posterior wall, bounded on three sides: the back is the widest, the front is the external oblique, at the bottom is the iliac crest.

The bottom of the triangle form oblique and transverse abdominal muscles. In fact, the triangle is a small gap between the edges of the broadest and outer scythe, which occurs not in all, but in about 75% of people.

The lumbar quad of the Grunfeld-Lesgaft is bounded on four sides:

  • upper side - 12th edge and lower gear
  • lateral - external oblique (posterior edge)
  • bottom - edge of the internal oblique
  • medial - edge of the sacrospinous

This place is considered weak due to the fact that the oblique abdominal muscles do not cover the quadrangle, so it is not strengthened, and in this place there is a high risk of lumbar hernia.

The anatomy of the muscles of the back and a description of muscle functions show the vital need to strengthen them. Often incorrect posture, which then leads to many diseases of the spine, arises due to asymmetry, which can be eliminated only by intensive training.

In addition to the usual exercises for the back, special exercises are also performed using simulators. But it would be wrong to just punish our muscles constantly, keeping them in a “black” body and not allowing them to relax for a minute. Therefore, be sure and relax them.

  1. Exercises for relaxation. They must be carried out necessarily in the intervals between periods of muscular loads.
  2. Relaxing massage. Especially recommended for athletes after training and people of physical labor after the end of the working day.
  3. Water treatments:
    • pine baths
    • backstroke

Be sure to protect your back from excessive surge and hypothermia. This can lead to back pain and serious muscular disease - myositis. Take care of your muscular system.

Superficial muscles of the back

In humans, the back muscles are located on the back, which experts have divided into two groups. These are superficial muscles of a back and deep. Like the chest, they are simultaneously in several layers. Superficial are joined to the skeleton of the shoulder girdle, also the humerus.

Their first layer includes trapezius muscle. It is considered the widest. Its main function is to set the blade in motion. The next layer is a large and small rhomboid muscles. Going inwards, one can see how both denature muscles are attached to the ribs.

In the spinous processes of the seventh vertebra of the neck, a trapezius muscle is formed, belonging to the superficial group.In addition, its ends can be seen in the periosteal ligament, the median part of the nuchal line of the occiput, the protuberance of the external occipital, nuchal ligament and the posterior zone of the clavicle.

This is where the upper muscle bundles are located. Some of its parts relate to the scapula spine and acromion. In the first are the lower beams, and in the second case the middle ones are located. Due to the upper beams, it is able to help the scapula to rise, as well as rotate in the sagittal plane.

Trapezius muscle, or rather its beams at the moment when the spine is fixed, bring the scapula to him. If a symmetrical contraction occurs, the neck section is straightened. As for the one-sided, in this case, the face turns in the opposite direction.

The lower trapezoidal zone is considered the basis for the widest back muscle, specifically for its upper zone. It takes its origin in the area of ​​the spinous processes, which are present in the last four and sometimes six thoracic, sacral and lumbar vertebrae.

In addition, experts say that she has the opportunity to join the posterior surface of the iliac crest. Starting from the very top, the latissimus dorsi muscle goes up and slightly to the side, and then joins the crest of the small tubercle of the shoulder bone.

Somewhere in the lumbar region, this muscle creates an aponeurosis. It subsequently grows to the thoracolumbar fascia. Due to the widest muscle of the back, our shoulder unbends and the raised arm drops. Fixing it to the ribs allows the chest to expand, thereby helping to fill the lungs with air.

Somewhere around the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae, a muscle appears that is responsible for lifting the scapula. She goes down and a little sideways, and then attached to the top, or rather the corner of the blade. If the scapula was fixed in some position, we have the opportunity to tilt the cervical region aside. She is also a member of the superficial muscles of the back.

In the spinous processes from the second to the fourth thoracic vertebrae, both rhomboid muscles grow. Then they are attached to the medial edge of the scapula. Thanks to them, our scapula has the ability to approach the spine.

The upper posterior serratus muscle is formed in the spinous processes of the first two thoracic, sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae, and of the lower zone of the nuchal ligament. Docks to the second and fifth ribs. She helps us lift the ribs. As for the bottom gear, it is endowed with the ability to lower them.

The broadest

The widest back muscle (m. Latissimus dorsi) is flat, triangular in shape, occupies the lower half of the back on the corresponding side. The broadest muscle of the back lies superficially, with the exception of the upper edge, which is hidden under the lower part of the trapezius.

At the bottom, the lateral edge of the broadest forms the medial side of the lumbar triangle (the lateral side of this triangle forms the edge of the external oblique muscle of the abdomen, the lower one - the iliac crest).

The muscle begins with an aponeurosis on the spinous processes of the lower six thoracic and all lumbar vertebrae (together with the superficial plate of the lumbar-thoracic fascia), on the iliac crest and the median sacral crest. The tufts are oriented upwards and laterally towards the lower border of the axillary fossa.

At the top, muscle bundles are attached to the muscle, which begin at the bottom three to four ribs (they enter between the teeth of the external oblique abdominal muscle) and at the bottom corner of the scapula.

Covering the lower corner of the scapula at the back with its lower bunches, the latissar sharply narrows and passes into a flat thick tendon that attaches to the crest of the small tubercle of the humerus.

Near the site of attachment, the muscle covers behind the vessels and nerves located in the axillary cavity. There is an intermuscular synovial pouch between the big round muscle and the latissimus dorsi muscle.

Function: leads the hand to the torso and turns it inward (pronation), extends the shoulder, lowers the raised arm. If the hands are fixed on a sports equipment, tightens the body to them (when performing exercises on the bar, climbing, swimming).

Innervation: the thoracic nerve (CIV - CVII). Blood supply: the thoracic artery, the posterior artery, the circumflex humerus, the posterior intercostal arteries.

Trapezoidal

The trapezius muscle (m. Trapezius) is flat, triangular in shape, with a broad base facing the back midline. It occupies the upper back and the back of the neck.

It begins with short tendon bundles from the external occipital protrusion, the medial third of the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone, from the nuchal ligament, the spinous isles of the VII cervical and all thoracic vertebrae, and from the hypochondyl ligament.

From the places of onset, the muscle bundles are directed, visibly converging, laterally and attached to the bones of the shoulder girdle. The upper beams go down and laterally, attached to the back of the outer third of the clavicle.

Medium beams are oriented horizontally outwards and are attached to the acromion and scapular spine. The lower bundles follow up and laterally, passing into the tendon plate, which is attached to the scapular spine.

The tendon beginning of the trapezius muscle is more pronounced at the level of the lower border of the neck, where it has the greatest width. At the level of the spinous process of the VII cervical vertebra, the muscles of both sides form a well-defined tendon area, which is found as a depression in a living person.

The trapezius muscle is located superficially throughout, its upper lateral edge forms the back side of the lateral (lateral) triangle of the neck. The lower edge of the trapezoidal covers the upper part of the broadest and medial edge of the scapula, forms the medial boundary of the so-called auscultation triangle.

The lower boundary of this triangle passes along the upper edge of the broadest muscle of the back, and the lateral border - along the lower edge of the large rhomboid muscle (the size of the triangle increases with the arm bent forward in the shoulder joint when the scapula is lateral and anteriorly displaced).

Function: while simultaneously reducing all parts of the trapezius with a fixed spine, the scapula approaches the spine. The upper beams raise the scapula.

The upper and lower beams rotate the scapula around the sagittal axis while reducing simultaneously: the lower angle of the scapula is displaced forward and laterally, and the lateral angle is displaced upwards and medially.

With a reinforced shoulder blade and contraction on both sides, the trapezius muscles unbend the cervical spine and tilt the head backwards. With one-sided contraction, the muscle turns the face in the opposite direction.

Innervation: accessory nerve, cervical plexus (CIII-CIV). Blood supply: transverse artery of the neck, suprascapular, occipital arteries, posterior intercostal arteries.

Big and small rhomboid

Small and large rhomboid muscles (mm. Rhomboidei minor et primary) often grow together and form one.

Between themselves, they are separated by a thin layer of connective tissue. Rhomboids are located in the middle layer, deep beneath the trapezius muscles, and are almost invisible on their backs. Is that their small "corner" stands out from under the trapezoid on a well-detailed back.

Nevertheless, the pumped diamond-shaped muscles thicken the back and make it relief, because at their expense, the trapezium looks more convex. In general, diamond-shaped ones are often considered in conjunction with trapezoidal ones and even conditionally combine them into a group of muscles of the middle of the back.

The small rhomboid begins on the lower part of the nuchal ligament, the spinous processes of the VII cervical and I thoracic vertebrae, and the supraspinous ligament. Muscle bundles go obliquely from top to bottom and laterally, attached to the medial edge of the scapula above the spine level of the scapula.

The big rhomboid originates on the spinous processes of the II — V thoracic vertebrae. Attached to the medial edge of the scapula below the level of its spine, up to its lower corner. The diamond-shaped muscles, located under the trapezius muscle, cover behind the upper posterior gear and muscle, straightening torso.

Function: bring the scapula closer to the spine, while moving it upwards. Innervation: dorsal scapular nerve (CIV — CV). Blood supply: transverse artery of the neck, suprascapular artery, posterior intercostal arteries.

Raising spatula, upper and lower gear

The muscle that lifts the scapula (m. Levator scapulae) begins with tendon tufts on the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the upper three or four cervical vertebrae (between the attachments of the middle scalene muscle in the front and the belt muscle of the neck in the back).

Heading down, it attaches to the medial edge of the scapula, between its upper angle and spine. In its upper third it is covered by the sternocleidomastoid muscle, and in the lower third by the trapezius. Anterior to the scapula muscle, the nerve passes to the rhomboid and the deep branch of the transverse artery of the neck.

Function: raises the scapula, while bringing it closer to the spine. With a reinforced scapula it tilts the cervical spine in its direction.

Innervation: dorsal scapular nerve (CIV — CV). Blood supply: ascending cervical artery, transverse artery of the neck.

Attached to the ribs are two thin flat muscles - the upper and lower back serratus. Upper posterior dentate (m. Serrаtus posterior superior) located under rhomboid muscles, begins with a flat tendinous plate on the lower part of the left ligament and spinous processes of the VI — VII cervical and I-II thoracic vertebrae.

Going obliquely from top to bottom and lateral, the muscle is attached by separate teeth to the back surface of the II – V ribs, outwards from their corners.

Function: lifts the edges. Innervation: intercostal nerves (ThI — ThIV). Blood supply: posterior intercostal arteries, deep neck artery.

The lower back gear muscle (m. Serrаtus posterior inferior) lies in front of the broadest, begins with the tendinous plate on the spinous processes of the XI — XII thoracic and I — II lumbar vertebrae. It is spliced ​​with the superficial plate of the lumbar-thoracic fascia and the beginning of the broadest, attached with individual muscle teeth to the four lower ribs.

Function: lowers the edges. Innervation: intercostal nerves (ThlX — ThXII). Blood supply: posterior intercostal arteries.

Deep back muscles

The deep muscles of the back form three layers: superficial, medium and deep. The superficial layer is represented by the belt muscle of the head, the belt muscle of the neck and the muscle straightening the spine, the middle layer is the transverse-spinous muscle, the deep layer is formed by the interosseous, intertransverse and suboccipital muscles.

The greatest development is reached by the muscles of the surface layer, which are of the type of strong muscles that perform mainly static work. The muscles of the middle layer are oriented obliquely, spread from the transverse processes to the spinous processes of the vertebrae. They form several layers, and in the deepest layer the muscle bundles are the shortest and are attached to adjacent vertebrae.

In the deepest (third) layer, short muscles are located between the spinous and transverse processes of the vertebrae. This layer should include the muscles located in the back of the neck and acting on the atlantus-lateral joint. They are called suboccipital muscles.

Muscle, straightening the spine is the strongest of autochthonous muscles of the back, extends throughout the spine - from the sacrum to the base of the skull. It lies anterior to the trapezius, rhomboid, posterior jagged muscles, the latissimus dorsi muscle. The back is covered with a superficial leaf of the lumbar-thoracic fascia.

It starts with thick and strong tendon bundles from the dorsal surface of the sacrum, spinous processes, supraspinal ligaments, lumbar, 12 and 11 thoracic vertebrae, posterior segment of the iliac crest and lumbar-pectoral fascia.

At the level of the upper lumbar vertebrae, the muscle is divided into three tracts: lateral, intermediate, and medial. Each tract gets its name: the lateral becomes the ileal-costal muscle, the intermediate - the spinous muscle. Each of these muscles, in turn, is divided into parts.

The fact that the muscle is highly developed and has a common beginning on the bones of the pelvis, and above it is divided into separate tracts that attach widely to the vertebrae, ribs and on the base of the skull, can be explained by the fact that it performs an important function - it keeps the body upright.

Ilio-costal muscle is the most lateral part of the muscle, straightening the spine. It starts from the iliac crest, the inner surface of the lambo-thoracic fascia plate. It runs upwards along the posterior surface of the ribs laterally from the corners of the latter to the transverse processes of the lower (12–4) cervical vertebrae.

The iliophistaion muscle of the lower back begins from the iliac crest, the inner surface of the lambo-pectoral fascia plate, and is attached with separate flat tendons to the corners of the lower six ribs. Ilio-costal muscle of chest begins from six lower ribs, medially from the sites of attachment of ileal costal muscle of loins.

Attached to the upper six edges in the area of ​​the corners and to the posterior surface of the transverse process 12 of the cervical vertebra. Ilio-costal muscle of neck begins from corners, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ribs (medially from the sites of attachment of ileal-costal muscle of chest). Attached to the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of 6-4 cervical vertebrae.

Together with the other parts of the muscle, straightening the spine, it extends the spine, with a unilateral contraction it tilts the spine in its direction, lowers the ribs. The lower bundles of this muscle, delaying and strengthening the ribs, create support for the diaphragm.

The function of the entire muscle, straightening the spine accurately reflects its name. Since the component parts of the muscle have a beginning on the vertebrae, it can act as an extensor of the spine and head, being an antagonist of the anterior muscles of the body.

Contracted by separate parts on both sides, this muscle can lower the ribs, unbend the spine, throw back the head. With one-sided contraction, it tilts the spine in the same direction.

The transverse-spinal muscle is represented by a multitude of muscle bundles arranged in layers, which extend obliquely upward from the lateral to the medial side from the transverse to the spinous processes of the vertebrae. Muscle bundles of the cross-spinal muscles have a different length and, spreading over a different number of vertebrae, form individual muscles: semi-partial, multi-part and rotator muscles.

The half-bony muscle has the form of long muscle bundles, starts from the transverse processes of the underlying vertebrae, spreads over four to six vertebrae and attaches to the spinous processes. It is divided into the muscles of the chest, neck and head.

The muscle behind is covered with the belt and the longest muscles of the head, and the semi-lean muscle of the neck lies deeper and anterior to it. Half-breast muscles of the chest and neck unbend the thoracic and cervical spinal column, with a unilateral reduction of these departments turn in the opposite direction.

The half-muscle of the head tilts the head back, turning (with one-sided contraction) the face in the opposite direction. Partition muscles are the musculo-tendon bundles, which start from the transverse processes of the underlying vertebrae and attach to the spinous processes of the overlying ones.

Interstitial muscles are involved in the extension of the corresponding parts of the spine. The transverse muscles of the lower back, chest, and neck are represented by short beams, spreading between the transverse processes of the adjacent vertebrae. Better expressed at the level of the lumbar and cervical spine.

The transverse muscles of the loin are divided into lateral and medial. In the neck area, there are distinguished anterior (transverse between the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes) and the posterior intertransverse muscles of the neck.

Possible diseases

For most people, the state of the back muscles is almost familiar. Practically every person, one way or another, has to either experience serious physical exertion (garden in the country, playing sports, lifting and carrying heavy things), or for various reasons being in an uncomfortable (non-physiological) posture (working at a computer, driving a car, and .d.)

As a result, there is pain in the muscles of the back, which we usually attribute to fatigue or the eternal “pulled, stretched”, etc. In fact, the reasons for such pain can be very much, and often it signals about problems far more than just overworking the muscles.

Myalgia is the most likely cause of pain. This pain syndrome develops in various diseases of the spine.

Myalgia is manifested by musculo-fascial pain in the back, which develops due to the constant uneven load on the muscular corset of the back, resulting in fatigue of the muscle fibers, which over time is supplemented by oxygen starvation (it starts due to a mismatch of blood flow to the muscle and consumed oxygen).

Myalgia can develop due to a variety of reasons. This may be osteochondrosis, herniated intervertebral discs, scoliosis, etc.

Most of the causes of myalgia are mechanical. Some muscles become overworked, as a result of which the pain syndrome develops. Quite often, such problems are aggravated by a lack of vitamins, as a result of which the excitability of the trigger points increases.

There are a number of problems in which the back muscles respond with pain in one way or another. At the same time, these reasons are completely different and the treatment of each one is individual.

The vast majority of episodic and chronic back pain occurs due to excessive stress on the lower back. The back muscles experience constant tension even if you do not exercise, do not dig a garden, and do not drag.

For example, when you just sit in front of the monitor, it is the back muscles that support your body weight in the right position. That is why people with “sedentary” work are advised to sit in a chair as “deeper” as possible and lean against the back of a chair, as well as periodically take breaks and get up from the table.

In addition, people with this way of life just need to keep an active lifestyle in order to compensate for the uneven load on the back.

Much more serious - this is a different stretch, after which there is a spasm. This is possible with an unsuccessful sudden turn, jump, throw. Any heavy load on unheated pre-muscles can be dangerous.

Myositis - this cause of back pain is also quite common. In fact, it is inflammation of the muscle, which is usually accompanied by aching pain.

At the same time they are compacted and are in constant tension, there is pain when probing. And the chronic form of this disease, which is almost not accompanied by pain, can lead to the most dire consequences, even atrophy.

Myositis cannot be cured itself, as there can be many causes of its occurrence - trauma, infection, parasites, toxic substances, etc. and treatment should be chosen precisely taking into account the cause of inflammation.

It is precisely the cause of the appearance of myositis that doctors have to establish by conducting a series of additional studies. At the same time, an attempt to simply relieve inflammation, although it will produce a result, is likely to prove temporary.

The term Lumbago means acute back pain. The cause of such pain is usually an overstrain. Usually lumbago appears after a sharp movement, which is aimed at lifting heavy loads.

The pain in the muscles in this case can also be caused by various reasons - displacement of the vertebrae, for example, intervertebral hernia. Hypothermia, as well as injuries and diseases of the spine, can provoke the appearance of this pain syndrome.

In general, lumbago requires serious treatment by a doctor. In this case, several days of bed rest, taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and painkillers are perceived as standard.

In the case of intervertebral hernia, pain appears not only in the muscles. The reason for the appearance of pain is simple - the nerve roots of the spinal cord are compressed, and they respond with pain. Muscle pain is also often observed, as muscle spasm almost always occurs in the affected area. Thus, the body is trying to immobilize and protect the damaged part of the spine from movement.

In general, the cause of this disease is the degeneration of connective and muscle tissue, as well as metabolic disorders. As a result, the intervertebral disc loses its depreciation properties and gradually goes beyond the limits of the spinal column.

At some point, the damaged disk does not stand up, and the intervertebral hernia itself is formed. Very often such a hernia presses against the muscles, ligaments or nerve endings, which leads to the appearance of pain.

The treatment in this case is very similar to the treatment for lumbago, with the only difference being that in this case, muscle spasm (muscle relaxants) can also be used. For the rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, painkillers and bed rest remain unchanged. Also used a number of physiotherapeutic methods in the treatment of this disease.

Treatment methods

Back muscle treatment should be done under the guidance of a doctor. It includes several highlights and depends largely on the cause of the disease. The basis of treatment includes the fight against infection, proper organization of work, sports and the correct mode of rest.

Allocate symptomatic and pathogenetic therapy. To implement the latter, it is necessary to find out the true cause of the development of the disease and only then proceed to treatment.

If the disease is parasitic, an anthelmintic drugs are prescribed by a doctor, if infectious (bacterial) is antibiotics, and for autoimmune myositis, glucocorticoids are combined with immunosuppressants.

Regardless of the causes of the disease, pain relievers (analgesics) and anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed, usually these are NSAIDs (ketorolac, diclofenac, etc.) With local forms, warming ointments can be used (finalgon, apizotron). These drugs have a local irritating effect, due to which the protective tension of the muscles is relieved, which leads to a decrease in the intensity of pain.

One of the most effective drugs for adults is an ointment called Finalgon, and for children there are many similar, for example, Dr. Mom.

Massage for diseases is not only not prohibited, but extremely useful, especially if it is carried out in conjunction with physiotherapeutic procedures. In the chronic course of the disease, such treatment should be carried out at the spa to achieve the maximum effect.

In the acute period of the disease, strict bed rest with restriction of any physical exertion is shown to patients with myositis of the back.At high figures of body temperature, antipyretics are prescribed by a doctor. It is recommended to keep the affected part of the back warm, you can use woolen bandages, scarves, etc.

If a person is diagnosed with purulent myositis, then most often the treatment is performed surgically. An infection site is opened and pus is removed from it, then a drainage bandage is adjusted. At the same time, antibiotic therapy is carried out in parallel, both local and parenteral.

In order to prevent inflammation of the back muscles, it is necessary to avoid heavy loads in the cold, do not fall under drafts, do not allow infectious diseases and other diseases to flow, ie. consult a doctor in a timely manner and follow all his instructions.

Treatment of folk remedies is very popular. In many cases, with their help, it is possible to quickly reduce pain. The most popular treatment recipes by folk methods are presented below:

Compress of cabbage leaves. For its preparation you need 2 cabbage leaves. They are sprinkled with soda and soaped. Impose on the affected area and wrap a woolen scarf or scarf. Such a compress relieves pain well.

Rubbing bodody. It is necessary to melt the butter, about 1 tsp. and mix it with 1/4 tsp. bodyagi The resulting mixture is rubbed into the affected area at night no more than 1 time per week to avoid skin irritation. The rubbing area is covered with a flannel diaper.

Compress of burdock leaves. Such a compress is made from fresh pre-scalded burdock leaves, which are superimposed on the sore spot and covered with a flannel diaper.

Potato treatment. 3-4 potatoes are pre-boiled in their uniforms, it is recommended to knead them for better contact with the surface. After several layers of tissue impose the resulting mass on the affected area. When the potato is cold, it is removed. Further, it is recommended to grind the place of a compress with vodka and warm it well. It is advisable to carry out such a procedure within a few days.

Yoga includes physical exercises aimed at improving your body. They contribute to stretching, resistance to static physical exertion and strengthening muscle strength. Therefore, Yoga, like any other gymnastics, is suitable for the treatment of myositis caused by prolonged stay in an uncomfortable position.

Back areas

Back muscles anatomy

The structure of human muscles In accordance with a specific arrangement of muscle fibers, there are five main areas of the back, namely the superficial muscles and determine their contours. The rear surface of the body is divided into:

  • Division of the spine.
  • Blade department.
  • Squatting area.
  • Zone of the loin.
  • Sacral department.

Since all the muscles of the back have a multi-layered structure, there are two types of fibers:

  • located on the surface
  • occurring in deep layers.

Strengthening the back

Whatever humor tells us, back problems occur at any age. Let's try to avoid them, or, at least, move them back to that later age, when the need for physical activity disappears by itself.

Just four easy exercises to strengthen your back will add confidence to your gait and save you from serious injury.

These exercises were developed by Roberta Lenard - Personal Trainer at Massachusetts Fitness Center in Sommerville, USA.

  1. Exercise first - the bridge of the hips
    • We put on our backs, bend our legs. Feet pressed to the floor, are at a distance equal to the width of your hips. Hands relaxed, lie along the body. Tighten the gluteal muscles and, lifting the pelvis from the floor, lift the hips up. Carefully ensure that your body is pulled into a completely straight line between your knees and shoulders.
    • Fix the position for a few seconds and slowly go back to the floor. The bridge runs 12-13 times.This exercise is a counterweight to a sitting position (which is very important nowadays), which puts too much pressure on the spine. We stretch the thigh muscles, stabilizing both the spine (mostly in the lumbar region) and the abdominal and abdominal muscles (by the way, the exercise helps to get rid of the hated protruding tummy well).
    • Lift one leg and pull it up towards the ceiling. The foot remains in a bent position, there is no need to "pull the socks." Ensure that both hips are at the same level. It is much more difficult - try to hold on for a few seconds, slowly sink to the floor and repeat the same thing 5-8 times with the second leg.
  2. Exercise Two - "Dog and Bird"
    • We start like a dog - on all fours. Knees hip width, hands palms fully pressed to the floor, are shoulder width apart. Tighten the abdominal muscles and retract the abdomen so that the back does not bend and the hips do not move.
    • Now we stand in the pose of “bird” - we stretch the right leg back and left arm forward. Hold on for 2-3 seconds, or more, if you are still able to stand still. Change your leg and arm. Repeat five six times.
    • This exercise maintains muscle tone and improves coordination, which strengthens the spine, makes the gait harder and stabilizes the muscles of the back if you daily lead an active lifestyle and make your spine overstrain without noticing it - dancing, walking, running, caring for small , movable child.
    • Gradually increase the time of "holding" the position of "bird" to 10-12 seconds. Add load, periodically slowly raising and lowering the leg and arm.
  3. Exercise number three - side plank
    • We lie down on the right side, stretching the body into one straight line. We rest with an elbow on the floor. Make sure the elbow is right under your shoulder. Slightly straining the abdominal muscles, tear off the hips from the floor. The neck is stretched in line with the spine. Hold this position should be 20-40 seconds. Then, turn over and repeat the same thing on the other side.
    • This exercise increases endurance, strengthens muscles and stabilizes the lower vertebrae, protects you from daily physical overloads (especially if you spend all day on your legs).
    • Holding the basic position described above, slowly lift up and lower your leg down for 5-6 accounts. Advice is especially patient - keep your body not on your elbow, but resting your hand on the floor. We do not bend the arm at the elbow, the palm is strictly under the shoulder.
  4. Exercise Four - Lunge
    • Slightly straining your abdominal muscles, step forward with your right foot. Hands on the hips. The pitch should be big enough. The leg is bent at an angle of 90 degrees and the thigh parallel to the floor. Perform the exercise 8-10 times. After the attacks with your right foot, return to a standing position and do the same with your left foot.
    • Lunges improve coordination, which is the key to a healthy spine while walking, jogging, climbing steps and prolonged standing on the legs. Also, exercise stabilizes the muscles of the buttocks, which is also good.
    • Try right after the classic direct attacks to make attacks on the diagonal. Such a change in the position of the leg will cause you to exert more effort in order to hold on and not lose balance.

After several workouts with a complicated option, try to hold your hands behind your head during the attacks, or pick up dumbbells in your hands to increase resistance. The main thing is to remember that without an elastic and strong muscular corset, our spine is daily subjected to monstrous loads.

It is not immediately noticeable, but by mature age, ligaments, cartilage, intervertebral discs are seriously worn out. From this and there is an ugly hump in old age. Any “disruptions” in the work of the back are pulling the whole bunch of diseases behind - from arthritis to poor eyesight.A beautiful back and a healthy spine is a grace, a thin, contoured, taut silhouette and a confident gait.

So, do not let your back feel technical difficulties - she still has to endure you to old age! A daily 15-20 minutes of light exercise will save you from any painful surprises, up to a great age!

Performing the above exercises will be enough to strengthen the back muscles and relieve pain, but for the most active I will show 15 more interesting exercises for the back muscles. It will be very useful for office workers.

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The gear muscles of the back: the functions and symptoms of disorders

In the human body there are a lot of different muscles. In particular, on the back there are those through which the ribs can rise and fall.

In certain diseases of the spine, characteristic painful manifestations are felt at the location of the jagged muscles of the back. To eliminate the symptoms of pathology, special treatment is provided.

Paddle operation

The thought of writing a section "Working with paddles" arose after a friend asked me to help me figure out the training program. The question was something like this: "After training, my neck and head ache. What am I doing wrong?". About working with
blades of speech was not.

We went to the gym, and I asked a friend to perform a number of the most common exercises: vertical thrust block to the chest, horizontal thrust block to the stomach and lifting dumbbells through the sides standing.

In each exercise, the same mistake was made - the lack of control of the blades. In other words: where it is necessary to stabilize the shoulder blades - they moved. My friend was not the only person who had a similar problem.

It all comes down to the lack of knowledge in the field of anatomy and an understanding of the technique for performing an exercise for a particular person. If you try to localize the problem, then you can say that the person does not know how to turn on the front gear muscle and does not know how to lower the shoulder blades.

About stabilization we are no longer talking.

Front gear muscle (PZM)being at the same time an antagonist of the trapezius muscle and the “rotator” of the scapula, it has a great influence on the condition of the shoulder girdle.

The upper fibers of the PZM perfectly assume the function of support for the scapula, unloading the upper bundles of the trapezius muscle and the muscles of the lifting scapula during the exercise “lifting dumbbells through the sides standing (and not only).

Just imagine what will happen if the TZM, because of the reduced tone, does not rotate the paddle, for example, during the lifting of the dumbbells through the sides.

Having exhausted the volume of movement in the shoulder joint, the humerus will rest against the acromion, and then the trapezius muscle in conjunction with the muscle lifting the scapula will drag the entire shoulder girdle upwards. Given the fact that both of these muscles are attached to the cervical vertebrae, the entire compression load will fall on the neck. And if PZM worked as it should, then the neck would remain safe.

To determine hypotension (weakness) PZM can look at the shoulder blades. They are usually "pterygoid". If you ask a person to raise his hands through the sides up and track the moment of the start of rotation of the blades (after 60-70 degrees), then you can see not only the bilateral weakness and the late inclusion, but also the imbalance between the left and right side.

The reason for the weakness of the PSM can serve a number of factors:

1. Active trigger points in the muscle and tendons (the task is to deactivate the trigger points)
2. Shortening the antagonist and suppressing the function of the PZM (the task is to restore the function of the antagonist and PZM)

Rib dysfunctions, lesion of the long thoracic nerve, etc. I see no point in considering, because This is the responsibility of doctors.

There is a test for determining the tone of the PZM, but it requires knowledge and skills. Therefore, in our hands, in the hands of personal trainers, only visual diagnostics and test exercises remain.

By the test exercises include the following:

1. Lifting the arms through the sides up (we estimate the moment of the beginning and end of the blade rotation)

2. Push-up (we estimate the ability to stabilize the blades)

Exercises to train the anterior serratus

1. The protraction of the shoulder blades standing against the wall, standing in a quadrangle, in a rest lying

2. The protraction of the blades on the cadillac (see video below)
3. The protraction of the shoulder blades on the chair (see video below)

After aiming PZM, you can go to the exercises that require the PZM to work as a stabilizer (push-ups, for example).

The next step will be dynamic retraining. The task is to train the client in the correct sequence of muscle insertion when performing various exercises. As an example, consider the exercise Vertical bench sitting with one hand.

On this training, the minimum set of skills for movement and stabilization can be considered complete.

Lowering blades

Why is this necessary. The muscles that raise and lower the scapula should be well balanced. If the tone of the muscles lowering the scapula is reduced, hypertonicity in the muscles lifting the scapula (upper portions of the trapezoid and m. Scapula-scapula) will compensate. If this is explained in a scientific language, the following will turn out: “Relaxing agonist and increasing its length.

As a result, to maintain the balance between the activity of the cells of the neuro-muscular spindles and the Golgi tendon apparatus, an increase in the length of the muscle is necessary. This lengthening requires shortening of the antagonist muscle ”(LF Vasilyeva). The task is to restore the tone and strength of the muscles that lower the scapula. To do this, do the following: 1.

Locally work the lowering of the blades

2. Use the muscles that lower the shoulder blades as stabilizers in various exercises (vertical thrust of the block to the chest, horizontal thrust of the block, lifting dumbbells through the sides while standing, etc.)

4 important muscles for extra workout

You have important muscles that are not very involved in most common training programs. Their weakness (or congestion) can cause injury.

Therefore, we will only be happy if you devote a special extra day to their workout every week.

Below you will learn how to test this muscle for performance and how to get her form back if tests reveal problems with you.

1. Anterior gear muscle

Located in the anterior chest wall. Presses the scapula to the body and participates in the movement of the chest when inhaling.

Check Take off your shirt, ask someone to watch your back and make the usual pushups approach from the floor.If at the lower point of your shoulder blades are not pressed to the back - the front cog is weak.

Pump up Start doing push-ups from the simulator Smith, setting it at chest level. Make sure that your shoulder blades remain pressed against the body during the exercise. Do 3-4 sets of 8–12 repetitions. Over time, gradually lower the neck below, still watching the position of the blades.

Your goal is to finally lower the crossbar to the level of the floor.

2. Lumbar-iliac muscle

Primary hip flexor - it lifts your leg forward. Weak or shortened due to many hours sitting at the computer lumbar-iliac may cause injuries to the knees and lower back.

Check Lie on your back, straighten one leg and bend the other and press to your chest. See what happens with a straight leg. If the lumbar-iliac is of normal length and strength, then the heel of the straight leg will remain on the floor. If not - break away from him.

Stretch and pump Sit on a bench or chair. Chain your hands behind your head, straighten your back. Keeping correct posture (If you lean forward, you make a mistake. Sit upright!), Lift one leg as high as possible.

Hold this position for 5 seconds, then return to the starting position and repeat with the other leg. Make 3 sets of 5 repetitions.

3. Pear muscle

It is located in close proximity to the gluteus maximus muscle and is responsible for external rotation of the thigh. With impaired mobility of the hip joints, it works poorly, and therefore most of the load when performing a series of exercises on the legs takes on the muscles of the back of the thigh, and this leads to pain in the lumbar region and pelvis.

Check Sit on a chair, bending your knees to a right angle. Put your foot on your leg - with one foot on your knee with the other. Now try, without helping yourself with your hands, to lower the shin of the upper leg to the horizontal. If not, then you have a problem with a pear.

Develop Work on the mobility of the hip joints. To do this, lie on the floor, bending the legs to the right angle between the thigh and shin. Place your feet far wider than your shoulders. Now bring your knees together and then return to the starting position. Squeeze your knees with force and make a second pause before you separate them. So there will be more benefit. Make 2-3 sets of 12-15 repetitions.

4. Tensor fascia fascia

Located on the lateral surface of the thigh, acts on the knee joint and is involved in the flexion of the thigh. A hard fascia wide fascia tensioner can lead to pain in the outer part of the knee joint, as well as pain in the hip itself, if the cause of chronic overload is constant squatting with a barbell.

Check Lags on the side, stretching the body in line with the legs. Now lift the straightened upper leg to an angle of 40 degrees, without changing the initial position of the body and the lower leg. During normal operation of the wide fascia tensioner, this movement will be obtained without movement in the pelvis or lower back.

Stretch out Stand close to the wall, putting his legs shoulder-width apart. Get the left foot over the right foot and, having transferred the weight to the right foot, sweep the pelvis strictly to the right.

You will feel stretching in the upper lateral part of the thigh - what you need! Stay in this position for 30 seconds, then change your leg.

Make sure that your pelvis during the execution of this exercise did not fall back. Do 3-5 sets for each leg daily.

General anatomy of the back muscles

The area of ​​the spinal column consists of a large number of muscle fibers, tendons, bones, cartilage, ligaments and other things. In aggregate - all this provides us with the necessary mobility and functionality. All back muscles can be divided into 2 large groups:

  • Superficial muscular formations - those that are located superficially and perform the main function.
  • The deep muscles of the back (internal muscles of the back) are located closer to the bones and perform more precise movements.

In addition to this classification, there is a distribution of muscle structures by region. The back of a person consists of the following areas:

  • Central or vertebral. One of the two unpaired areas contains the main spinal straighteners.
  • The area of ​​the blades. Most of the muscle fibers that allow you to raise your arms.
  • Subscapularis. Located below the shoulder blades and allows you to deflect the spine to the left and right.
  • Lumbar spine The most vulnerable part of the spinal column, which is exposed to the greatest loads.
  • Sacral The second unpaired region, which is located in the projection area of ​​the sacrum.

Such anatomical division into areas allows the physician to most accurately describe the localization of the pathological process, which speeds up the process of making an accurate diagnosis.

And for a better understanding of how it is all formed, there are a large number of tables on human anatomy, where each structure is described in detail.

The broadest back muscles

The broadest muscle of the back is the largest structure of the body of the muscular type and is localized in the lower third of the spine. The beginning departs from the spinous processes of the thoracic vertebrae, its aponeurosis continues to the level of the entire lumbar region and ends in the sacral region. Additional fixation points:

  • Ilium (its crests).
  • Lower ribs of the chest (last 4).
  • The tendon is fixed in the area of ​​the hump of the humerus.

This structure has many functions. Here are some of them:

  • Allows you to bring the shoulders to the body.
  • Makes it possible to wrap arms behind the body (up to the middle line).
  • Secondarily involved in the act of breathing (as attached to the ribs).
  • When fixing the upper belt allows you to tighten the body to the hands.
  • The formation of the musculature of the body.
  • The widest back muscle performs the function of a protective barrier. Covers and protects the lower back and sacrum area.

In addition, the pumped broadest back muscle provides the relief of your body, which is very important for bodybuilders.

Trapezoidal

Musculus trapezius (Latin) has received such a name due to its shape. It is a steam room, is located to the right and left of the spine for the most part in the thoracic region, rises to the cervical segment (moves away from the occiput), and ends at the bottom on the lumbar processes. Its lateral part (lateral) is attached to the acromial process of the scapula. Performs the following functions:

  • Approaches the scapular bone to the spinal column.
  • The work of individual fibers allows you to raise or lower the blade.
  • When both bones are fixed, its fibers allow the back of the head to be thrown back.

Exercises that are associated with lifting and bringing the body to the hands (horizontal bar) can strengthen this structure of the muscular system.

Diamond shaped

Or musculis rhomboideus (Latin). They are under the above described muscle structures and have an appearance that resembles a rhombus. Most starts from the thoracic vertebrae (from the first 4) and are fixed to the inner edge of the scapula. Performs the function of bringing the lower angle of the blade to the center line, its rise. Small is fixed between the cervical vertebrae (two lower) and on the inner edge of the scapula, performs the same function.

Muscles that raise the shoulder blades

Their location is very similar to diamond-shaped structures. They start from the mastoid processes of the cervical vertebrae, descend obliquely down and attach to the inner edge of the scapula. Function - lift the scapula up.

They are under rhombic and form the third muscular layer. The upper gear is fixed by two fibers to the cervical and thoracic vertebrae, descending obliquely downwards and attached to the back surface of the 2 and 5 ribs. The main function - provides breathing movements due to fixation on the ribs. The lower back cog is under the broadest and starts from the fascia 2 chest (lower) vertebrae and 2 lumbar.It goes up and to the side and has the same fixation point as the upper one. It has almost the same fiber course as the oblique muscles of the back.

Spinous and spinous

It is located on the 2nd level of the layer of deep muscle fibers, directly below the line. Its fibers connect the spinous (overlying) and transverse processes (underlying) of the vertebrae, forming a similarity of jumpers. Function:

  • Participation in straightening the spine.
  • Turn it to the side.
  • Deviation left and right.
  • Deviation of the head back.

In many ways, the functions are similar to the upstream fibers.

Strengthening the spine

To maintain physical health and beautiful posture, it is necessary to strengthen the muscular corset, and especially the deep muscle fibers and chest muscles. The characteristic of such exercises is very simple:

  • Stand in the knee-elbow position. Alternate deep deflection in the lumbar region and arching. Hold a moderate amplitude, repeat 10–20 times.
  • Without changing position, alternately pull the right foot back and left hand forward. Thus, alternate legs and arms. Repeat 20 times.
  • We lay down on the stomach and do the “boat” exercise. If the human constitution (excess weight) does not allow you to perform this exercise, then skip it.
  • Turn on your back. Hands behind the head (elbows as widely as possible). We take out the left knee with the right elbow and the left elbow with the right elbow. Such work of the muscles of the back should cause a slight pulling pain.
  • Pulling on the crossbar. At the moment of raising the body to the crossbar, all body structures are involved.
  • Block pull down while standing and lying down.
  • For training the extensors, you can use the deadlift neck and hyperextension.

Such a complex anatomy of the back allows us to perform many functions with our body. Since childhood, many people have taught themselves and their families to general strengthening exercises. The scheme of these workouts is very simple and is available to almost anyone, the main thing is to force yourself to perform the entire amount of exercises at least 2-3 times a week.

Muscle lifting scapula

The muscle that lifts the scapula begins with tendon bundles from the posterior hillocks of the transverse processes of the upper three or four cervical vertebrae (between the attachments of the middle scalene muscle, the front and the belt muscle of the neck, behind).

Heading down, the muscle is attached to the medial edge of the scapula, between its upper corner and spine of the scapula. In its upper third, the muscle is covered by the sternocleidomastoid muscle, and in the lower third by the trapezius muscle.

Function: raises the scapula, while bringing it closer to the spine, with a strengthened scapula, tilts the cervical part of the spine in its direction.

Small and large rhomboid muscles

Small and large rhomboid muscles often grow together and form one muscle. The small rhomboid muscle begins from the lower part of the nuchal ligament, the spinous processes of the 7th cervical and 1 thoracic vertebrae, and from the hypostosis of the ligament. The tufts of it pass obliquely - from the top down and laterally and are attached to the medial edge of the scapula, above the spine level of the scapula.

The large rhomboid muscle originates from the spinous processes of the 2-5 thoracic vertebrae, attached to the medial edge of the scapula - from the level of the scapula to its lower angle.

The diamond-shaped muscles, being located deeper than the trapezius muscle, cover the back posterior serratus muscle themselves and, in part, the muscle straightening the spine.

Function: brings the shoulder blade closer to the spine, while moving it upwards.

upper and lower rear serrated

Attached to the ribs are two thin flat muscles - the upper and lower back serratus. The upper back gear is located in front of the rhomboid muscles, begins in the form of a flat tendinous plate from the lower part of the weak ligament and the spinous processes of 6-7 cervical and 1-2 pectoral vertebrae.

Steering obliquely from top to bottom and laterally, it is attached by separate teeth to the back surface of 2-5 edges, outwards from their corners.

Belt muscle of the head

Belt muscle of the head is located directly in front of the upper parts of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. It starts from the lower half of the nuchal ligament (below level IV of the cervical vertebra), from the spinous processes of the 7th cervical and upper three to four thoracic vertebrae.

The bundles of this muscle pass upwards and laterally and are attached to the mastoid process of the temporal bone and the rough area under the lateral segment of the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone. With bilateral contraction, the muscles unbend the cervical part of the spine and the head, with unilateral contraction the muscle turns its head in its direction.

Belt muscle neck

Belt muscle of the neck begins from the spinous processes of 3 - 4 thoracic vertebrae. It is attached to the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of two or three upper cervical vertebrae, covering behind the beginning of the bundles of the muscle that raises the scapula. Located in front of the trapezius muscle.

With simultaneous contraction, the muscles unbend the cervical part of the spine, with unilateral contraction, the muscle rotates the cervical part of the spine to its side.

Muscle, straightening spine

It is the strongest autochthonous muscle of the back, extending along the entire length of the spine - from the sacrum to the base of the skull. It lies anterior to the trapezius, rhomboid, posterior jagged muscles, the latissimus dorsi muscle.

The back is covered with a superficial leaf of the lumbar-thoracic fascia. It starts with thick and strong tendon bundles from the dorsal surface of the sacrum, spinous processes, supraspinal ligaments, lumbar, 12 and 11 thoracic vertebrae, posterior segment of the iliac crest and lumbar-pectoral fascia.

Part of the tendon bundles, starting in the sacrum, merges with the bundles of the sacroiliac and dorsal sacroiliac ligaments.

At the level of the upper lumbar vertebrae, the muscle is divided into three tracts: lateral, intermediate, and medial. Each tract gets its name: the lateral becomes the ileal-costal muscle, the intermediate - the spinous muscle. Each of these muscles, in turn, is divided into parts.

Features of the structure of the muscle, straightening the spine, developed in the course of anthropogenesis in connection with erect walking. The fact that the muscle is highly developed and has a common beginning on the bones of the pelvis, and above it is divided into separate tracts that attach widely to the vertebrae, ribs and on the base of the skull, can be explained by the fact that it performs an important function - it keeps the body upright.

At the same time, the division of the muscle into separate paths, the division of the latter at different levels of the dorsal side of the body into shorter muscles with a smaller length between the points of origin and attachment, allows the muscle to act selectively.

So, for example, when contraction of the ileal-rib muscle of the lower back, the corresponding ribs are pulled downwards and thus creates support for the manifestation of the force of action of the diaphragm during its contraction, etc.

Ilio-costal muscle

Ilio-costal muscle is the most lateral part of the muscle, straightening the spine. It starts from the iliac crest, the inner surface of the lambo-thoracic fascia plate. It runs upwards along the posterior surface of the ribs laterally from the corners of the latter to the transverse processes of the lower (12–4) cervical vertebrae.

According to the location of the individual parts of the muscle in different areas, it is divided into the iliopsoas muscle of the lower back, the iliopus of the chest, and the iliopus of the neck.

The iliophistaion muscle of the lower back begins from the iliac crest, the inner surface of the lambo-pectoral fascia plate, and is attached with separate flat tendons to the corners of the lower six ribs.

Ilio-costal muscle of chest begins from six lower ribs, medially from the sites of attachment of ileal costal muscle of loins. Attached to the upper six edges in the area of ​​the corners and to the posterior surface of the transverse process 12 of the cervical vertebra.

Ilio-costal muscle of neck begins from corners, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ribs (medially from the sites of attachment of ileal-costal muscle of chest). Attached to the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of 6-4 cervical vertebrae.

Together with the other parts of the muscle, straightening the spine, it extends the spine, with a unilateral contraction it tilts the spine in its direction, lowers the ribs. The lower bundles of this muscle, delaying and strengthening the ribs, create support for the diaphragm.

Longest muscle

The longest muscle is the largest of the three muscles that make up the muscle that straightens the spine. It is located medially to the ileal-costal muscle, between it and the spinous muscle. It allocates the longest muscles of the chest, neck and head. The longest muscle of the chest has the greatest length.

The muscle originates from the posterior surface of the sacrum, the transverse processes of the lumbar and lower thoracic vertebrae. It is attached to the posterior surface of the lower nine ribs, between their tubercles and corners, and to the tops of the transverse processes of all the thoracic vertebrae (muscle bundles).

The longest neck muscle begins with long tendons from the tops of the transverse processes of the upper five thoracic vertebrae. Attached to the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of 6-2 cervical vertebrae. The longest muscle of the head begins with tendon bundles from transverse processes of 1-3 pectoral and 3-7 cervical vertebrae.

Attached to the posterior surface of the mastoid process of the temporal bone under the tendons of the sternocleidomastoid and mastoid muscles and the belt muscles of the head. The longest muscles of the chest and neck unbend the spine and tilt it to the side, the longest muscle of the head unbends the latter, turns the face to its side.

Spinous muscle

Spinous muscle - the most medial of the three parts of the muscle, straightening the spine. Adjacent directly to the spinous processes of the thoracic and cervical vertebrae. In it, respectively, allocate the spinous muscle of the chest, the spinous muscle of the neck and the spinous muscle of the head.

The spinous muscle of the chest begins with 3-4 tendons from the spinous processes of the 2 and 1 lumbar, 12 and 11 thoracic vertebrae. Attached to the spinous processes of the upper eight thoracic vertebrae.

The muscle is spliced ​​with a deep-lying semi-bony muscle of the chest. The spinous muscle of the neck begins from the spinous processes 1 and 2 of the thoracic 7th cervical vertebra and the lower segment of the ligamentum. Attached to the spinous process 2 (sometimes 3 and 4) of the cervical vertebra.

The spinous muscle of the head begins with thin bundles from the spinous processes of the upper thoracic and lower cervical vertebrae, rises up and attaches to the occipital bone near the external occipital protrusion. Often this muscle is missing. The remaining muscle extends the spine.

The function of the entire muscle, straightening the spine accurately reflects its name. Since the component parts of the muscle have a beginning on the vertebrae, it can act as an extensor of the spine and head, being an antagonist of the anterior muscles of the body.

Contracted by separate parts on both sides, this muscle can lower the ribs, unbend the spine, throw back the head. With one-sided contraction, it tilts the spine in the same direction.

The muscle also shows great strength when the torso is flexed when it performs inferior work and prevents the body from falling forward under the action of ventrally located muscles that have a larger lever of action on the spinal column than the dorsally located muscles.

Spinous Spongy Muscle

This muscle is represented by multiple layers of muscle bundles, which run obliquely upward from the lateral to the medial side from the transverse to the spinous processes of the vertebrae.

Muscle bundles of the cross-spinal muscles have a different length and, spreading over a different number of vertebrae, form individual muscles: semi-partial, multi-part and rotator muscles.

At the same time, according to the occupied area throughout the spinal column, each of these muscles, in turn, is subdivided into individual muscles, called by the location on the dorsal side of the body of the neck and occipital region.

In this sequence, separate parts of the cross-spinal muscle are considered. The half-bony muscle has the form of long muscle bundles, starts from the transverse processes of the underlying vertebrae, spreads over four to six vertebrae and attaches to the spinous processes. It is divided into the muscles of the chest, neck and head.

The half-bony muscle of the chest starts from the transverse processes of the lower six thoracic vertebrae, attached to the spinous processes of the four upper thoracic and two lower cervical vertebrae.

The half-muscle of the neck originates from the transverse processes of the six upper thoracic vertebrae and the articular processes of the four lower cervical vertebrae, and is attached to the spinous processes of the 5-2 cervical vertebrae.

The head muscle is wide, thick, starting from the transverse processes of the six upper thoracic and articular processes of the four lower cervical vertebrae (outward from the long muscles of the head and neck), attached to the occipital bone between the upper and lower nuchal lines.

The muscle behind is covered with the belt and the longest muscles of the head, and the semi-lean muscle of the neck lies deeper and anterior to it. Half-breast muscles of the chest and neck unbend the thoracic and cervical spinal column, with a unilateral reduction of these departments turn in the opposite direction.

The half-muscle of the head tilts the head back, turning (with one-sided contraction) the face in the opposite direction. Partition muscles are the musculo-tendon bundles, which start from the transverse processes of the underlying vertebrae and attach to the spinous processes of the overlying ones.

These muscles, spreading through two to four vertebrae, occupy the grooves on the sides of the spinous processes of the vertebrae along the entire length of the spinal column, ranging from the sacrum to 2 cervical vertebrae. They lie directly in front of the semi-long and longest muscles. Partitional muscles rotate the spinal column around its longitudinal axis, participate in the extension and tilt it to the side.

Muscles - rotators of the neck, chest and waist

The muscles — the rotators of the neck, chest, and loins — make up the deepest layer of back muscles, which occupies the groove between the spinous and transverse processes.

Rotator muscles are better pronounced within the thoracic spine. According to the length of the bundles, the rotator muscles are divided into long and short.

Long rotator muscles begin from the transverse processes and attach themselves to the bases of the spinous processes of the overlying vertebrae, spreading over one vertebra. Short rotator muscles are located between adjacent vertebrae.

Muscles - rotators rotate the spinal column around its longitudinal axis. The interspinal muscles of the neck, chest and lower back connect the spinous processes of the vertebrae from each other, starting at 2 cervical and lower.

They are better developed in the cervical and lumbar spine, characterized by the highest mobility. In the thoracic spine, these muscles are weakly expressed (may be absent).

Interspinal muscles

Interstitial muscles are involved in the extension of the corresponding parts of the spine.The transverse muscles of the lower back, chest, and neck are represented by short beams, spreading between the transverse processes of the adjacent vertebrae.

Better expressed at the level of the lumbar and cervical spine. The transverse muscles of the loin are divided into lateral and medial. In the neck area, there are distinguished anterior (transverse between the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes) and the posterior intertransverse muscles of the neck. The latter allocate the medial part and the lateral part.

Myositis of the muscles of the back - a possible disease of the muscles of the back

Myositis is an inflammation of the muscles of the neck, chest, thigh, or back. The disease affects one or more muscles simultaneously. Myositis causes pain and leads to the formation of nodules in the muscles.

Without proper treatment, the disease becomes chronic. Myositis is an inflammation of the muscles of the neck, chest, thigh, or back. The disease affects one or more muscles simultaneously. Myositis causes pain and leads to the formation of nodules in the muscles. Without proper treatment, the disease becomes chronic.

What is myositis

Myositis is an inflammatory process in skeletal muscle. The most common myositis of the muscles of the back, shoulders and neck. If the disease affects not only the muscles, but also the skin, the doctor diagnoses dermatomyositis.

Depending on the number of affected muscles, local myositis and polymyositis are distinguished. One group of muscles suffers from local myositis. Polymyositis affects several muscle groups.

Myositis has two stages: acute and chronic. Acute myositis occurs abruptly, after injuries or great physical exertion. Without treatment or with improper treatment, myositis becomes chronic and worries the person regularly: the muscles ache during overcooling, changes in the weather, prolonged exercise.

Causes of myositis

The disease occurs due to over-exertion or muscle injury, strong muscle cramps, hypothermia, increased training. Inflammation of the back muscles develops due to infectious diseases: influenza, ARVI, chronic tonsillitis, tonsillitis, rheumatism.

Other causes of myositis include metabolic disorders, gout, diabetes, lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, scoliosis, and osteochondrosis.

Myositis occurs due to fungal and bacterial infections, parasites, diseases of the immune system. The cause of the disease can be exposure to toxic substances, for example, alcoholism or cocaine addiction. Purulent myositis appears if a person has been infected in an open wound or given an intramuscular injection without observing the rules of hygiene.

People who work in a certain posture and strain the same muscle group are prone to myositis: pianists, violinists, drivers, programmers.

Types of spinal muscle myositis

  1. Cervical myositis. The most common type of disease. Occurs due to a cold, overstressed neck muscles or a long stay in an uncomfortable position. The pain is felt on one side of the neck, the person cannot turn his head freely.
  2. Myositis of the muscles of the back. The pain is localized in the lower back, so the disease is often confused with lumbago. With myositis, the pain is not so acute, aching. It does not pass in a state of rest, it increases with movement and palpation of the lumbar muscles. Inflammation of the back muscles often occurs during pregnancy due to the increased load on the lower back.
  3. Infectious non-purulent myositis. Occurs due to enterovirus diseases, influenza, syphilis, tuberculosis and brucellosis. Accompanied by severe muscle pain and general weakness.
  4. Acute purulent myositis. The disease often becomes a complication of the chronic purulent process - for example, osteomyelitis. The patient feels pain in the muscles, they swell, the temperature may rise, chills appear.
  5. Ossifying myositis. It affects the muscles of the shoulders, hips and buttocks. It develops after injuries, but it can also be congenital. When diseases in the connective tissue deposited calcium salts. Muscles thicken and atrophy, hurt slightly.
  6. Dermatomyositis. Occurs more often in young women after stress, cold and hypothermia. A rash of red or purple appears on the arms, face, back and chest. A person feels weak, he has chills, fever. Calcium salts accumulate under the skin, the muscles shorten.
  7. Polymyositis The most severe form of myositis. The disease affects several muscles. Accompanied by pain and weakness in the muscles. At first it is difficult for the patient to climb the stairs, then from the chair.

Symptoms of myositis

  • neck pain gives to shoulders, forehead, neck, ears,
  • aching pains in the chest, back, lower back, calf muscles,
  • pains are aggravated by movement or palpation of muscles, in the cold,
  • pain does not go away after resting, muscles ache even at rest, when the weather changes,
  • muscles swell, become dense, tense, knots are felt in them,
  • a person cannot turn his head, straighten, bend,
  • the skin over the sore spot becomes hot, edema appears,
  • because of the pain, muscle weakness can develop, rarely - muscle wasting.

What is dangerous myositis

Muscle weakness develops due to myositis. It is difficult for a person to climb stairs, get out of bed, get dressed. As the disease progresses, the person barely raises his head from the pillow in the morning, holds it vertically.

The inflammatory process can capture new muscles. Cervical myositis is a serious danger: it affects the muscles of the larynx, pharynx and esophagus.

In severe cases, it is difficult for a person to swallow, there are coughing episodes, the muscles atrophy. Due to inflammation of the respiratory muscles, shortness of breath appears.

If you do not start treating myositis in time, the muscles will atrophy, muscle weakness may persist for a lifetime.

Diagnostics

Myositis is easily confused with other diseases. Symptoms of myositis of the lower back and cervical myositis can be mistaken for exacerbation of osteochondrosis. In addition, aching pain in the lumbar region can be a sign of kidney disease. To accurately determine the cause of pain, consult a specialist.

The doctor of the clinic "Health Workshop" in St. Petersburg will conduct a comprehensive examination and make an accurate diagnosis. He will conduct a survey and examine the painful area. you will help the doctor if you clarify the nature of the pain, remember under what circumstances it appeared. Our doctors use the following diagnostic methods:

  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging),
  • Ultrasound (ultrasound),
  • ECG (electrocardiogram),
  • Laboratory research.

Myositis treatment

Conservative treatment relieves muscle pain and heals the body. With acute myositis and exacerbation of chronic myositis, it is better for a person to stay at home and avoid physical exertion.

The doctor individually prescribes a course of treatment for the patient. The doctor selects procedures depending on the type and form of myositis, the age and characteristics of the patient. The course includes from 5 different procedures, the patient takes them 2-3 times a week. Treatment of inflammation of the muscles of the back lasts from 3 to 6 weeks. Muscle pain will go through the first week of treatment.

The course consists of the following procedures:

  • Resonant-wave UHF therapy,
  • Acupuncture
  • Fermatron Injections
  • Simulator Rehabilitation
  • Blockade of the joints and spine, etc.

Specialist deeply penetrates the dense muscle. It helps well in cervical myositis. Conservative methods relieve tension and restore the work of damaged muscles, normalize blood pressure, strengthen the immune system and improve the patient's well-being.

Acupuncture treatments relieve pain, inflammation, and muscle cramps. Physical therapy restores muscle tone, their ability to contract, improves blood circulation.

After completing the course of treatment, the doctor will give the patient a list of exercises that can be performed at home to consolidate the effect. The doctor will advise what else to do to prevent myositis.

Prevention of myositis

To protect yourself from myositis, dress according to the weather, avoid hypothermia, drafts, injuries, intense workouts. Do not sit on metal or cold benches while waiting for the bus. Do not carry on your feet infectious diseases, treat flu, sore throat, colds, ARVI in time. It is better not to lean against the cold wall for a long time and not to sit with your back to the window, even if it is closed.

Play sports: swimming, jogging, yoga, ride a bike and skate. If you work in the same position, take breaks and warm-ups: bending in different directions, circular movements of the shoulders. Do not smoke while driving with the window open, otherwise you risk getting cervical myositis.

Doctors recommend that the following products be included in the menu for myositis:

  1. vegetable oil, vegetables and fruits with vitamins A, E and C: sweet peppers, tomatoes, lettuce, oranges, tangerines, lemons, kiwi, apples. These products neutralize the harmful substances that are formed during muscle inflammation,
  2. products with easily digestible proteins: soy, beef, chicken, oysters, almonds,
  3. products with anti-inflammatory substances - salicylates: carrots, potatoes, beetroot, herbal teas from peony, rose root, raspberry leaf,
  4. stewed, boiled or steamed fish. It contains fats that reduce the inflammatory process in the muscles,
  5. foods with calcium: cabbage, milk, sour cream, cottage cheese, garlic, parsley, celery, strawberries, cherries, gooseberries, currants,
  6. products with magnesium: cereals, peas, beans, leafy vegetables, nuts, blackberries, raspberries,
  7. foods with zinc: liver, cheese, egg yolks, pumpkin.

Drink a day at least 1.5 liters of water, fresh green tea, dogrose broth, cranberry and lingonberry fruit drinks, peach and pomegranate juice, dried fruit compote.

Give up cigarettes and alcohol, salty, spicy, fried and fatty foods.

A strong back: not only for beauty

Have you noticed which muscles are most often shaken by people in gyms? Most often, newcomers are struggling to develop the so-called "demonstrative" muscles: men work on the biceps and chest, and girls - on the hips and buttocks. After all, under the clothes back is not visible! However, this is not quite true: a narrow waist and a V-shaped contour of the back form a taut, athletic male figure, and for girls and women, a strong back allows you to wear dresses with a low cut at the back without fear.

The muscles of the back are the biggest workers in our body, unlike many others, they are constantly “busy”. In sports, they participate in almost all basic strength exercises for the chest, limbs, lower body, so people with a weak back cannot effectively build muscle mass, increasing the working weight of the projectiles and the intensity of training. In addition, a weak muscular corset increases the likelihood of injury.

Metabolic myopathies

The cause of congenital damage to the muscles, in which they can hurt, is often an impaired metabolism of the body.

Myopathy can be an independent disease, can be combined with others.

The cause of myopathy may be a violation of the metabolism of glycogen, lipids, or mitochondrial dysfunction.

For metabolic myopathy is characterized by constantly progressive weakness. The course of the disease with periodic ups and downs, sporadically, more often after exercise, myalgia occurs, there can be destruction / decay / destruction of muscle tissue cells with a sharp increase in creatine kinase and an increase in myoglobin in the urine, urine color becomes red-brown.

The treatment of congenital structural myopathies is complex. First of all, it is necessary to establish the form of the disease and the degree of damage, to assess the patient's condition.

In addition to treatment by a neurologist, patients need the help of a physiotherapist, a physiotherapy physician, an occupational therapist and a speech therapist. For respiratory disorders, polysomnography is required.

How does the muscular system of the back work?

Knowing the location of the muscles, the physiology and biomechanics of their work, it is easier to understand how to properly develop a particular muscular group, giving it the appropriate load. Therefore, the first book that you open before you start to study your body should be an anatomical atlas with detailed photos and tables. There will not be a superfluous and popular article on myology - the science of how muscles work and work, and training videos with comments from knowledgeable people will help you to feel for yourself how the muscles are located on your back. Assessing their condition, you will not waste time on those that are better developed, and pick up exercises for the weak.

According to the anatomical classification, the back is divided into five zones: the vertebral, it stretches along the entire main stem of the body, the scapular and subscapularis, the lumbar region and the sacrum.

The location of the spinal muscles are of two types:

  • superficially attached to the so-called spinous, long, processes of the spine (these bumps are felt along the entire spinal column) and end at different parts of the shoulder girdle, ribs, shoulder blades, pelvis,
  • the beginning of the attachment of the deep - paired, shorter transverse processes. Intertwined, strong muscle fibers bind the vertebrae together.

The contours of the back mainly form the superficial muscles, so in the hall it is easier and in some sense more pleasant to work with them: the result is immediately visible, and this inspires newcomers not to be lazy. Deep, forming a kind of corset around the spine from the head to the sacrum, work together, so most of them are united in the muscular group "straightener torso". Outwardly, they are hardly noticeable, but they affect the overall appearance of the back and are of great importance for power loads.

First layer

Bodybuilders are very fond of the trapezoid, as it largely forms the relief of the body, and its size in a person immediately shows whether he is engaged in strength training. Large and flat, it covers almost the entire back - from the back of the neck to the shoulder blades. This muscle starts from the occipital bone, all cervical and thoracic vertebrae, and at the end is fixed on the top of the scapula. Right and left, it has the form of right-angled triangles, and together they merge into an inverted trapezoid, the base facing the line of the shoulders.

The main function of the trapezius back muscles is to control the movement of the shoulder blades. Some bundles of fibers are lowered, others lift them up, for example, when we shrug our shoulders in perplexity or work with oars. To wake up the trapeze completely and feel how it responds to the effort, tilt the head back, keeping your back still.

The widest back muscle is partially covered with a trapezium from above, its wide flat triangle reaches just below the waist. At the beginning of its fibers are attached to the lower pairs of the pectoral and to all the lumbar vertebrae, the sacrum, the iliac crest and the four pairs of lower ribs. Pulling to the sides / upwards, they end on the so-called small tubercle of the humerus. It works when we:

  • unbend the shoulder, lower the arm and draw back / down while turning the palm inwards,
  • we float, we pull up, we push out (we make movements when the arm is fixed or stretches forward, and we pull the torso behind it),
  • breathe (lower ribs pull up).

Regulars of gyms often call the broadest muscle "wings", as it forms a V-shaped muscular contour of the figure, protruding wings behind, at the level of the armpits. Under the broadest, dividing her load and complementing the range of movements, there is a large circular muscle of the back, its bodybuilders are referred to as "small wings".

Second layer

The main muscles of this zone are diamond-shaped, like bridges or platforms, they connect the shoulder blades with the vertebrae of the upper back.The large rhomboid muscle originates from the four upper pectoralis, the small - from the two lower cervical vertebrae and the inferior ligament. Heading diagonally downward, both of them are attached to the inner corner of the shoulder blade and allow you to lift, lower and spread the shoulder blades. Simply put, it is diamonds that are responsible for posture - when they lack strength, the shoulder blades move forward, because of what a person looks slouching.

Below are more me weak muscles. One of them, a small round (rather oblong), goes from the four upper vertebrae of the neck diagonally down to the upper part of the inner edge of the scapula, it pulls the scapula upwards. The muscular group of the posterior gear muscles helps breathe: the upper raises, and the lower one lowers the ribs during inhalation and exhalation. Although the jagged muscles are thin and seemingly imperceptible, they can bring a lot of trouble because of the peculiarities of their innervation, for which the intercostal nerves are responsible. The pinching of these nerve roots causes a familiar intercostal neuralgia.

Sacrospinous

This powerful muscle is slightly noticeable on both sides of the spine from the neck to the bottom of the back, connecting all its bone fragments among themselves and with the ribs, its individual tufts are drawn to the bones of the pelvis and the sacrum. In fact, it is not one, but two parallel muscle strands, united by the common name “straightener (“ extensor ”)) of the back. One part of it is called the ileal-costal muscle, the second is the longest. In the anatomical atlases a spinous muscle is also attached to them, which runs along the corresponding processes of the vertebrae. However, in some training guidelines, it is referred to as independent muscle structures, as it is responsible for flexing the spine.

The sacrospinous muscle supports the body vertically and is responsible for the mobility of the spine. Thanks to her, we can tilt and turn our heads in all directions, bend and straighten the back, rotate the body. In the lumbar region, it works in conjunction with the square muscle of the loin, which formally does not belong to the back, as it is located on the back wall of the abdomen and is separated from it by a layer of connective tissue (fascia).

Memo for beginners

Although the structure of the muscles of the back at first glance seems difficult, over time you will be able to understand cunning terms and be surprised - it’s necessary how everything is reasonably arranged in our body! Each movement depends on a particular muscle, and, letting it work, you gradually teach it to hard work, and in gratitude you will get a beautiful and toned figure.

But do not rush immediately to the gym, and especially do not start working with weights yourself, if you have not done this before! Among urban residents it is difficult to find a completely healthy person. Sitting work and the habit of relaxing at the TV not only spoil the posture, but also provoke various diseases of the spine. Therefore, before you make a plan for your first workout, talk to your doctor: people with strong scoliosis, old injuries, injuries and disc shifts cannot always swing their backs.

The innervation of the flexors / extensors of the back is provided by the dorsal, or posterior, roots of the spinal nerves. People with weak backs with sudden movements or improper training can become trapped and cause severe pain. If you do not suffer from serious diseases, but sometimes you feel pain in the sacrum, you should undergo an examination and start physical therapy to strengthen the muscular corset. When the body is stronger, you can go to the power loads, without which no training on the back can do.

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